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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007424.3: 4634663..4638041
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_01949

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 10.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC034228 RB
    CDS sequence
    • >TC034228 RB
      atggttgaa aaaaagtat acaaagatt tatttccga 
      ctcctcccc agcgaaaca atggcctgg gactaccta 
      aaaattcta gacgatcac aaaacaatt tacataagg 
      tgtctgcaa gaacttaac aaggcaaag gagagtgtg 
      gtccccact ttttggacg tttcactcc gaccaagtc 
      tttttcaac cacacacaa aaggagatt tacgatact 
      atcactcct gacgtgctg gacaatctt tccaacgga 
      cgggatgct attattatg gcatacggc caaacaggc 
      accggtaaa tcattaaca ataaacggc ttgcagaac 
      cccttcgag aacagggga atcctgccc cgagtcata 
      acagacttg ttccacaat ttgaacaag gaggcttcc 
      agaaacatt aaaatgtgc atccaagct tcttacgtt 
      gaattttca agaacaaac atttacgac ttgttgcaa 
      ccgtacccc aattcgctc gcctccctc aaagaaata 
      acaaaagtt aagatacgg agtgaggag gaagcgttg 
      aaaattatt tttaggggc gagggccgc aaggtcttt 
      gctgagagc gcctcttac ccttcacat tcctcaagc 
      agcattttc accttttat atcaataaa aaaaatctc 
      gaaatgcaa gacaatgcg ataagaaag tgcaagctg 
      cacgttgtc gaccttgcg ggggccgac actgttggg 
      aatttcagc tgttctttt aaaaacccc tacgagatt 
      ggcacagcg aatttagct aaaacgcaa ctcgagcag 
      ttttttcta gtcttgtgt tcgcaaatc cccgaacag 
      attaaactg aggcagaag ctaaacccc atgattcag 
      tatttgggc gattcgtta aataattca agcattttg 
      cgtctcatt ggtcacatt cgggtctcg agggaggat 
      ttattggtg acaatctca atgctgagg tttggcgag 
      ataataggc gggctgaag tcgatgaaa tgtgaagtc 
      agtattaat aaagaagtc acacaggag agagttgaa 
      agcttggaa agggaatta gcgaggctc aagcttgaa 
      aatacgtac aatacgatt ttgatgcat caagacctg 
      gccaaatca ctaaacgag gaaaggttt gctcatatt 
      gaaaggacg gtgaacgaa tttttacaa aacaaaatt 
      tctcatctc acgttaatg aacgtttgc gatgttaat 
      atcgcttta gagattttg cgaatgatt tataaaaaa 
      tgtgaggaa gaaaaaaag gaagtgatt gtgacgaaa 
      cacagcagt actattggc agtcacaaa gcgcactcg 
      aaatcgtct cgtctttca cacaaaact tcgtctact 
      gagactctg cctaaagaa aaaacccgg tcgggttca 
      gccgctgct gttttaaaa accccaagt aaagtggga 
      tcgcaacac gaaacagga tcaaaaacc aagtcaaga 
      accagtagt tcaagtctg ttaaagcgc gcatccgcc 
      actaagaga aaatcaagc tcgagtgcc tccctttat 
      gacaaaacc cgggagaag tcgaagtcc aaacagtca 
      tttgagaca gctcttatg ccgcaaatt ccccccgag 
      tatcacgag gcctggcag gcgtacgtt accgacaaa 
      aacgacgaa ttttcccgt tttcagcat ttttacgag 
      aagaatgaa accgtcgcg aaaaacctt taccggact 
      tatctcaac gatttggat cggttgaga gaaatttcc 
      tcacgggtt gagaagcac aagcacgac ttgttcctg 
      gctcgcatg actcgagag ttccaacgc gcaaacatc 
      gacaagggc gaaacggtc agtgagttt gagaaatgc 
      tccacaagc cagttggaa acctcacaa caggagcaa 
      ctggaagtg caagagtcg gtactgagg tgtcagacc 
      gaacttaaa gcatatatt aatgcttgt aaggagatt 
      aaaagagat gtgaaacgc catttcgat ttgttttgt 
      aaagaaaaa tataatttg gagattcct ggcttggag 
      ccttgcgag cccgctatg gatattgtt gcaacgtta 
      gctcaggag gaggaaaaa atggtgaag gaagtgcag 
      gcgcaggat gataaccac gaaatgtgc gaaattaag 
      cggtttgag cgatttaaa aatttgatc gaatacgag 
      aagaggagg aagaggttg tatcagatg aaacacagg 
      gagtgggtg gtttac
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC034228 RB
      gccaattgc cccaaaaag tgctttaga agacctcgg 
      actagtcgt agcacgtga acgttgcat aaattatac 
      actcttgct ggattctga aaatatctg tgacgacat 
      aaatcgaac tgaacgacc tccacagga aagatggcg 
      tctccagta tacgtagaa gaggagctg ggcaggaaa 
      tgggaccgg tgtttttcg gatgcacta cttaagttt 
      ggaggtggg gtcgtttta ggatcagtc ttttcgctg 
      ttgtttttc aaaaggaga cggtggcct gtcgtaatg 
      ggcggcggg tttggtata ggaatggct tactcaaat 
      tgtgaacgg gatttaaac gccaccatt cgtgaccga 
      agcctctaa tgtattgta attttagta cagcattag 
      attctactg ccgctggaa ttatttcct gtaataaat 
      tgttttgta gagtgtaaa taaaaccta cgttgtaac 
      tttattttt taaaccggc actgaatgt aattactta 
      atttaataa agcccataa tcaaaattg tgtttgaca 
      acttgacaa ttttatttt caattactc aacccgcag 
      ttatggttg aaaaaaagt atacaaaga tttatttcc 
      gactcctcc ccagcgaaa caatggcct gggactacc 
      taaaaattc tagacgatc acaaaacaa tttacataa 
      ggtgtctgc aagaactta acaaggcaa aggagagtg 
      tggtcccca ctttttgga cgtttcact ccgaccaag 
      tctttttca accacacac aaaaggaga tttacgata 
      ctatcactc ctgacgtgc tggacaatc tttccaacg 
      gacgggatg ctattatta tggcatacg gccaaacag 
      gcaccggta aatcattaa caataaacg gcttgcaga 
      accccttcg agaacaggg gaatcctgc cccgagtca 
      taacagact tgttccaca atttgaaca aggaggctt 
      ccagaaaca ttaaaatgt gcatccaag cttcttacg 
      ttgaatttt caagaacaa acatttacg acttgttgc 
      aaccgtacc ccaattcgc tcgcctccc tcaaagaaa 
      taacaaaag ttaagatac ggagtgagg aggaagcgt 
      tgaaaatta tttttaggg gcgagggcc gcaaggtct 
      ttgctgaga gcgcctctt acccttcac attcctcaa 
      gcagcattt tcacctttt atatcaata aaaaaaatc 
      tcgaaatgc aagacaatg cgataagaa agtgcaagc 
      tgcacgttg tcgaccttg cgggggccg acactgttg 
      ggaatttca gctgttctt ttaaaaacc cctacgaga 
      ttggcacag cgaatttag ctaaaacgc aactcgagc 
      agttttttc tagtcttgt gttcgcaaa tccccgaac 
      agattaaac tgaggcaga agctaaacc ccatgattc 
      agtatttgg gcgattcgt taaataatt caagcattt 
      tgcgtctca ttggtcaca ttcgggtct cgagggagg 
      atttattgg tgacaatct caatgctga ggtttggcg 
      agataatag gcgggctga agtcgatga aatgtgaag 
      tcagtatta ataaagaag tcacacagg agagagttg 
      aaagcttgg aaagggaat tagcgaggc tcaagcttg 
      aaaatacgt acaatacga ttttgatgc atcaagacc 
      tggccaaat cactaaacg aggaaaggt ttgctcata 
      ttgaaagga cggtgaacg aatttttac aaaacaaaa 
      tttctcatc tcacgttaa tgaacgttt gcgatgtta 
      atatcgctt tagagattt tgcgaatga tttataaaa 
      aatgtgagg aagaaaaaa aggaagtga ttgtgacga 
      aacacagca gtactattg gcagtcaca aagcgcact 
      cgaaatcgt ctcgtcttt cacacaaaa cttcgtcta 
      ctgagactc tgcctaaag aaaaaaccc ggtcgggtt 
      cagccgctg ctgttttaa aaaccccaa gtaaagtgg 
      gatcgcaac acgaaacag gatcaaaaa ccaagtcaa 
      gaaccagta gttcaagtc tgttaaagc gcgcatccg 
      ccactaaga gaaaatcaa gctcgagtg cctcccttt 
      atgacaaaa cccgggaga agtcgaagt ccaaacagt 
      catttgaga cagctctta tgccgcaaa ttccccccg 
      agtatcacg aggcctggc aggcgtacg ttaccgaca 
      aaaacgacg aattttccc gttttcagc atttttacg 
      agaagaatg aaaccgtcg cgaaaaacc tttaccgga 
      cttatctca acgatttgg atcggttga gagaaattt 
      cctcacggg ttgagaagc acaagcacg acttgttcc 
      tggctcgca tgactcgag agttccaac gcgcaaaca 
      tcgacaagg gcgaaacgg tcagtgagt ttgagaaat 
      gctccacaa gccagttgg aaacctcac aacaggagc 
      aactggaag tgcaagagt cggtactga ggtgtcaga 
      ccgaactta aagcatata ttaatgctt gtaaggaga 
      ttaaaagag atgtgaaac gccatttcg atttgtttt 
      gtaaagaaa aatataatt tggagattc ctggcttgg 
      agccttgcg agcccgcta tggatattg ttgcaacgt 
      tagctcagg aggaggaaa aaatggtga aggaagtgc 
      aggcgcagg atgataacc acgaaatgt gcgaaatta 
      agcggtttg agcgattta aaaatttga tcgaatacg 
      agaagagga ggaagaggt tgtatcaga tgaaacaca 
      gggagtggg tggtttact aaaaaaatg tacaataaa 
      aatgtacaa aatat

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY