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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007424.3: 11404269..11417727
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_01905

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 10.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    eggs lost during procedure: potentially due to defects in egg-shells egg-morphology or egg-size, (14 dpi)
    Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50 affected eggs/embryos/larvae - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    embryo/egg without visible larval cuticle in cuticle preparation - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    affected eggs/embryos/larvae - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC031246 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC031246 RA
      atgtttatt tcgaaacat ttggtgtta ttgataatt 
      attatcagc cactttaat ggcaatgga cagcagtta 
      ctgcaaaga aatcgcttt cgaaggctc aacaagccg 
      tccggtttg aagctaaaa cagagactt caagaaaaa 
      ttaaatcaa tacaaacag cggactatc caaacaatt 
      tgttatgat atcgtcggc tgcttcgaa ttacctcat 
      aaaaggtca ccgcttcag aaagtacct gaaaatccg 
      gaaatgcta ggcacacaa ttttattta tttaggaga 
      gggatcaat ttttcacaa ccggaaatt ttgcattac 
      gacgacgac gggaaatcg cttcgcaaa tccagcttt 
      aattactcg cagccgctc aaaatgatc atccacggc 
      tatatggga aaatggaac gacatcggc aacttaatt 
      ggcgccaat acgtattta aaaatctat gactgcaat 
      atggttttg atggactgg agtgtgggt gccagaggg 
      ccccaatat gccatggcg gcggcaaac acggaactt 
      gtaggccgc caattggga attctcctg ttaaaaatg 
      atcgaaaat gggctaaaa cccgaagac atccacttg 
      cttgggttc tcgttgggg gcgcatgtt gcaggaagt 
      tcgtcggaa gttttgaag aagaagggg cacttaatt 
      gggcgaatt acaggactt gatgctgcc agtccgctg 
      ttccggacc aatcatttg agagagaaa cacaaaaaa 
      ttggaccgg gatgatgcg cgacttgtt gatgttgtt 
      cacaccgat gctagtccg acgattact gatgggttc 
      gggttgtgg caacccata ggccatgtc gactttttc 
      ccgaatggg ggacaggag cagcctgga tgtagggat 
      acgaggcag tcggtggtt gttacacat tttgaacaa 
      gtcctaacc cgggaagtg gcctgcagc cacatccgc 
      gcctggcgc ctcttccag gaaaccctc ctcaacaaa 
      gccgccggc agccacaac cggtgcgaa ttcaccgct 
      ttcagctgt cctggcggc ctcaagtcc tttgaaaaa 
      ggattctgc ttccctcac ttacccaaa cccaacagt 
      tcgctcgca attgattta aattaccga aacgacatc 
      ggccggttc ggcgaagac atcaaaggc cagggtgtc 
      atgttcttt gtaacgcga gcaacgcca ccctattgc 
      gggacacaa ctccaggcc tcggtccac atttcgccc 
      aaaactgag gccatcaaa ggggttttg ttgctggac 
      gtgaactac ccgcatcac aacgtctcg ttccaaatc 
      gagtgcgat gcggacgat ttaattaca acggggact 
      gttatgagc ggcttgggg gttgcggat tatgagact 
      ttgaccgag aatgtgaaa aatttgacc gcaactttg 
      aagttcatt gatttggaa tacgaggaa gaaaataac 
      aacacgtac attccgacg atttatatc gataaagtc 
      gaaattcgt gacatgtac agtaacagt tggcagttt 
      tgccagaag gacacggct ttgaaggac acagttggg 
      ctaaacccc gccttttcg ataaccctg agtcgagat 
      agttgtttt gcagtaaat tcagttgtg tgtttcact 
      atggacctc tacaacgtt gtgggtttg ctgggacag 
      ggcacattt ggaacgatt catttatgt gagagaaaa 
      cacaaccaa cagaaaatc gtcattaag cgaatcaac 
      gtcgagctc aatggggcc aacacagaa ggcgcaaag 
      aacgaagtc gcggtccta aaatcgcta aaccatccc 
      aacgtaatc caattttac gacagtttt atgaaaagc 
      ggctcgttg tacatcgtc atggagtac gcgaataag 
      ggaaccctc ttcgacctg atctcccgc atcaagccc 
      aagaggttc acgccgcag accgtcatg aacctattt 
      tgccaaatt ctaatgggt ctgaaccac atccacgcg 
      cgcaaagtg atccatcgc gacctcaag accgaaaac 
      attttcctc accggactg cgagccgat gttgtcaaa 
      attggggat ttcggaatt tccaaaatc ctcctcaac 
      aacaaaaac gcccacacg gtcatcggc acttgcaac 
      tacgtggcc ccggaattg tgcgatggc aagccgtac 
      gacatcaaa tcggacatt tggtccctt gggtgcgtt 
      ttatacgaa ctgtgtgcc ctcgaacgc atgtatgaa 
      ggaacgatt tataacgtg gttttggcc atcgctgct 
      gggcagaag aaagtggtt gatgtgagt tattacggc 
      attcagatg cagcaaatg attgagtta atggtgcaa 
      gttgatccg aatgaccgg cctgataca acggctttg 
      atgagtctg agcgatgtt ttcccgagc ttgcacgtc 
      ctggggacc aatttgggg tgcatttcc aagggggcc 
      aagtttgat tttaatgcg gtttga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC031246 RA
      tttaaaaac ggcaaaaat ttccaattt tcgaaactt 
      gaagtcata tttatggtc gttgggaat tcccaactg 
      acaatttaa atttagttt taaaaaagc aatcattcc 
      ttgaaaaat cgttttgtg acacctatg gcgagctga 
      aagcccaac ttggaagtt ttgcattcg ccggttttg 
      gagttgtgt cgtttgccc ttgttgcct agactataa 
      taataattg cacaaagag taatataaa gaagaataa 
      attgtcact gccataaac cgtataatt aggcagatt 
      ccatctaga gtttagagc catttgtac gcgaaatca 
      gctcccact ctgtatcgt gtaaacgaa taatatcat 
      cctgtcatt tgatccctt tttgtaaat tcttaaaag 
      tgtacataa atactaaac tgactggtg tgtctttta 
      aaaactgtt catttcact ttattgttg gtgcatttg 
      taatttatc aatgtacag ttttgttac cttgattgc 
      catgcaaga atttattat ttctagtgt atcgacgtt 
      gttttgttg ccaataaaa tgtttatgg agatttcga 
      tcagtgttg tatataatt ttagtgttt tgtataaat 
      atttgtatg gcaataatc gaacttcga atcacggcg 
      ggtccacca cctcttcca actaatcac tgtacagtc 
      gtgggccgg ccaccgcct cccggaggc tactttcca 
      aattatttt gcggtgcta gacgcatgc aggtaatag 
      gttttgatg taaatgcac acatgggtg tgcgggccc 
      atatcaaat aaccccgcc accccgcct aagtagtaa 
      atgtggcta aattgtata atatgttag atgagacaa 
      gtgtgctgt ggagagcga tactctagt caattttca 
      gttttgtca attttagag caagtagtt aaattatta 
      ggatgttgg atgcacgcg gctataagc aggctgggg 
      cggaaaggc gcttttcgc tgcgggaag tccccaagt 
      aaggcgaat gcgagttgt atgcacata tcattatag 
      aatttatac tttcctaca tgactgggt ttaagaagt 
      gtgtacaat aattacgtc aagcctcga ccattacac 
      ccctcattt agctgaaga agcggttcg tggaataga 
      cgatgcaat atgttacgc tacagggtt cttttttta 
      caaatttct acgccgacg gttttttta atcaattcg 
      ttcgatcca atatttcac gaactttaa tcattcctc 
      tcctataga atattaaat tgttatgta tacaacgta 
      tagtcagga atatttcta cgcatttca ccccactaa 
      ccacatttc tgacaacca ggctgaatt caaacgaac 
      ggatcaaat tttttcaca cttgtttca tcgacggaa 
      tttgggaaa tgtcctaga aatatttct gaagtatat 
      ataaaaaat atagatgtt aaaactaaa ctataaatt 
      atcagtatt taatatagc ttctcaaat ggctagacc 
      ctcctaata tagtgaatt tcggaaacg accacgatg 
      tttatttcg aaacatttg gtgttattg ataattatt 
      atcagccac tttaatggc aatggacag cagttactg 
      caaagaaat cgctttcga aggctcaac aagccgtcc 
      ggtttgaag ctaaaacag agacttcaa gaaaaatta 
      aatcaatac aaacagcgg actatccaa acaatttgt 
      tatgatatc gtcggctgc ttcgaatta cctcataaa 
      aggtcaccg cttcagaaa gtacctgaa aatccggaa 
      atgctaggc acacaattt tatttattt aggagaggg 
      atcaatttt tcacaaccg gaaattttg cattacgac 
      gacgacggg aaatcgctt cgcaaatcc agctttaat 
      tactcgcag ccgctcaaa atgatcatc cacggctat 
      atgggaaaa tggaacgac atcggcaac ttaattggc 
      gccaatacg tatttaaaa atctatgac tgcaatatg 
      gttttgatg gactggagt gtgggtgcc agagggccc 
      caatatgcc atggcggcg gcaaacacg gaacttgta 
      ggccgccaa ttgggaatt ctcctgtta aaaatgatc 
      gaaaatggg ctaaaaccc gaagacatc cacttgctt 
      gggttctcg ttgggggcg catgttgca ggaagttcg 
      tcggaagtt ttgaagaag aaggggcac ttaattggg 
      cgaattaca ggacttgat gctgccagt ccgctgttc 
      cggaccaat catttgaga gagaaacac aaaaaattg 
      gaccgggat gatgcgcga cttgttgat gttgttcac 
      accgatgct agtccgacg attactgat gggttcggg 
      ttgtggcaa cccataggc catgtcgac tttttcccg 
      aatggggga caggagcag cctggatgt agggatacg 
      aggcagtcg gtggttgtt acacatttt gaacaagtc 
      ctaacccgg gaagtggcc tgcagccac atccgcgcc 
      tggcgcctc ttccaggaa accctcctc aacaaagcc 
      gccggcagc cacaaccgg tgcgaattc accgctttc 
      agctgtcct ggcggcctc aagtccttt gaaaaagga 
      ttctgcttc cctcactta cccaaaccc aacagttcg 
      ctcgcaatt gatttaaat taccgaaac gacatcggc 
      cggttcggc gaagacatc aaaggccag ggtgtcatg 
      ttctttgta acgcgagca acgccaccc tattgcggg 
      acacaactc caggcctcg gtccacatt tcgcccaaa 
      actgaggcc atcaaaggg gttttgttg ctggacgtg 
      aactacccg catcacaac gtctcgttc caaatcgag 
      tgcgatgcg gacgattta attacaacg gggactgtt 
      atgagcggc ttgggggtt gcggattat gagactttg 
      accgagaat gtgaaaaat ttgaccgca actttgaag 
      ttcattgat ttggaatac gaggaagaa aataacaac 
      acgtacatt ccgacgatt tatatcgat aaagtcgaa 
      attcgtgac atgtacagt aacagttgg cagttttgc 
      cagaaggac acggctttg aaggacaca gttgggcta 
      aaccccgcc ttttcgata accctgagt cgagatagt 
      tgttttgca gtaaattca gttgtgtgt ttcactatg 
      gacctctac aacgttgtg ggtttgctg ggacagggc 
      acatttgga acgattcat ttatgtgag agaaaacac 
      aaccaacag aaaatcgtc attaagcga atcaacgtc 
      gagctcaat ggggccaac acagaaggc gcaaagaac 
      gaagtcgcg gtcctaaaa tcgctaaac catcccaac 
      gtaatccaa ttttacgac agttttatg aaaagcggc 
      tcgttgtac atcgtcatg gagtacgcg aataaggga 
      accctcttc gacctgatc tcccgcatc aagcccaag 
      aggttcacg ccgcagacc gtcatgaac ctattttgc 
      caaattcta atgggtctg aaccacatc cacgcgcgc 
      aaagtgatc catcgcgac ctcaagacc gaaaacatt 
      ttcctcacc ggactgcga gccgatgtt gtcaaaatt 
      ggggatttc ggaatttcc aaaatcctc ctcaacaac 
      aaaaacgcc cacacggtc atcggcact tgcaactac 
      gtggccccg gaattgtgc gatggcaag ccgtacgac 
      atcaaatcg gacatttgg tcccttggg tgcgtttta 
      tacgaactg tgtgccctc gaacgcatg tatgaagga 
      acgatttat aacgtggtt ttggccatc gctgctggg 
      cagaagaaa gtggttgat gtgagttat tacggcatt 
      cagatgcag caaatgatt gagttaatg gtgcaagtt 
      gatccgaat gaccggcct gatacaacg gctttgatg 
      agtctgagc gatgttttc ccgagcttg cacgtcctg 
      gggaccaat ttggggtgc atttccaag ggggccaag 
      tttgatttt aatgcggtt tgaggtttt attgtaatg 
      attatgaag aaataaatt acctgtttt tat

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY