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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007424.3: 13463779..13467364
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_01887

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 30.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 50.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 50.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 5 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC034439 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC034439 RA
      atgagtggc tccggatat ccgtacccc cagggctcg 
      aattattca ccttatcca ccataccct ccaaattcg 
      gcacctcca taccctcca aacccccct taccccacg 
      caaggagga gtttttgct cccagtttg ggcttcaat 
      gttggctca cccatgtac atgccgcaa ccctacgcc 
      ggtgcaggc tacccttcg tcagcaagt ggaacgtct 
      tatgcttca agtgcgccc ccttaccca aaccccacc 
      ccaactatg taccccaac ccccactcg aatccatat 
      ccaggtcca agacccaat ccaggctca tacccgaac 
      cccaaaccg tcaacccca tattatggc tccaatcca 
      accccaagc ccccagcca ggcccatac ccacacccc 
      aaaccatca accccatat tatggacac caagcaact 
      cattcgaat tcgtatcaa acgccaaaa gtgaagagg 
      tctccaacg gtggttccc gcccaccct tttgaccca 
      cgaaaggac gcggaaatt ctgcgcaag gccatgaaa 
      ggcttcgga acggacgaa aaggccatt attaacgtg 
      ctaacgaag cgttcaaat gcccaacga ttggaaatc 
      gcagtccat tttaaaact ctttacgga aaagaccta 
      atcagcgat ttgaagagc gaactgagt gggaatttc 
      gagaaaacg attattgct ttaatgact ccacttcca 
      caattttac gctaaagag ttgcacgat gcaatttcc 
      gggcttgga accgacgaa accgtcctc atagaggtc 
      atgtgtacc ttaactaat gccgaaatc aggacaatc 
      agagaagcg tatcataga acctaccac aacaacctc 
      gaaagtgac ctcaaaggg gacaccagt ggtcatttt 
      cgacgactg atggtcgca ctttgcagt gcgggacgt 
      gacgaaagc atggtcgtg gatcaggcg gctgccatt 
      tccgaagcc caggctctt tacgaagcc ggggagggt 
      cgatggggc accgatgaa tccacgttt aatatgatt 
      ctgtgtcag cggaattat gaacacttg aaaatggta 
      tttcaggag tatcacaga atttcagga catgacatt 
      gagaaggcc atcaaaaaa gaattttct ggtgacatt 
      caggatggt cttttggct gttgtgaga tcgattaag 
      aaccaaccg gctttcttc gccaaatgt ttatacaaa 
      agtatgaaa ggtttgggg accaatgac cgcgatttg 
      atcagactg gtggtcacg cggtgcgaa attgacatg 
      ggggacatt aaaagggaa tacattaaa aaccacgga 
      gaatccttg gctgatgcc atcaaggga gatacgtca 
      ggagattac aaaaagtgt cttttggcc ctcattggg 
      gaagctctt ctaaggttt ccacttgca acaacttgt 
      cccaatttc gagtcaaca aattttcaa cccaaaatg 
      aatcacttc ggatgttcc aaaatacca aagcactcc 
      caaattgcc acatctcca acagtaaca ccttcgaaa 
      tttttcctc tcaagtgaa gatgccgaa gttttacac 
      aaagcaatg acagggccc ggaactgac gaaaaagcc 
      atcgttaac attatcacg aaacggtcc ttagcccaa 
      cgtttagaa ataatgtct caatttaat aaacaccac 
      aataacaat ttaatctcc gagcttaaa aaagaatta 
      agcggcgac ttgaaacaa ctaattttg gccctaatg 
      acaccacgt gaagaattg tacgctgag gaattacac 
      agggctatt agcgggtta ggaaccgac gaagatgtc 
      ctaattgaa gttttatgt actttgaat aacgcagaa 
      attatgacc atcagacat gcttatcac aaactgttt 
      cacaaaagc ctcgaaggt gacataaaa ggggacacc 
      agtggctac tttaaacaa cttttggta gccctctgc 
      ggtgttcaa cgtgacgag tgtgccgcg accgataaa 
      accgaggca gtttccgag gctgaaaat ctatacaat 
      gctggggaa aaccaatgg gggactgac gaatccact 
      tttactaaa attctaacc gagagaagt tatcctcaa 
      cttcggctt attttcgca gagtatgaa aaattgact 
      ggtcacggg atcgagcaa gcaattaag agtgaattc 
      tccggtgat attaaagac ggtttattg gcaattgtg 
      gagacagtt caaaataaa gcaaaattt tttgccaaa 
      aaattgcat aagagtatg aaaggcttg ggaactaat 
      gatcgagat ttgataaga gtggttgtg accaggagt 
      gaaattgac atgggggaa attaaaaat gaatatcaa 
      aaagagtac gggaagact ttggctgag gctattaag 
      ggcgataca tccggcgat tatagaaaa tgccttcta 
      gctcttatc ggcgaaaag taa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC034439 RA
      tagtcaccg tttacaata atgttttaa gtaagcttg 
      tccacttta gattttaac tttcagtga cgtatgcgc 
      acccggtct taaaagtcg tatctagct cactgttgt 
      tgacttcca gagcataaa caaatcaaa ggatcaaaa 
      tgagtggct ccggatatc cgtaccccc agggctcga 
      attattcac cttatccac cataccctc caaattcgg 
      cacctccat accctccaa acccccctt accccacgc 
      aaggaggag tttttgctc ccagtttgg gcttcaatg 
      ttggctcac ccatgtaca tgccgcaac cctacgccg 
      gtgcaggct acccttcgt cagcaagtg gaacgtctt 
      atgcttcaa gtgcgcccc cttacccaa accccaccc 
      caactatgt accccaacc cccactcga atccatatc 
      caggtccaa gacccaatc caggctcat acccgaacc 
      ccaaaccgt caaccccat attatggct ccaatccaa 
      ccccaagcc cccagccag gcccatacc cacacccca 
      aaccatcaa ccccatatt atggacacc aagcaactc 
      attcgaatt cgtatcaaa cgccaaaag tgaagaggt 
      ctccaacgg tggttcccg cccaccctt ttgacccac 
      gaaaggacg cggaaattc tgcgcaagg ccatgaaag 
      gcttcggaa cggacgaaa aggccatta ttaacgtgc 
      taacgaagc gttcaaatg cccaacgat tggaaatcg 
      cagtccatt ttaaaactc tttacggaa aagacctaa 
      tcagcgatt tgaagagcg aactgagtg ggaatttcg 
      agaaaacga ttattgctt taatgactc cacttccac 
      aattttacg ctaaagagt tgcacgatg caatttccg 
      ggcttggaa ccgacgaaa ccgtcctca tagaggtca 
      tgtgtacct taactaatg ccgaaatca ggacaatca 
      gagaagcgt atcatagaa cctaccaca acaacctcg 
      aaagtgacc tcaaagggg acaccagtg gtcattttc 
      gacgactga tggtcgcac tttgcagtg cgggacgtg 
      acgaaagca tggtcgtgg atcaggcgg ctgccattt 
      ccgaagccc aggctcttt acgaagccg gggagggtc 
      gatggggca ccgatgaat ccacgttta atatgattc 
      tgtgtcagc ggaattatg aacacttga aaatggtat 
      ttcaggagt atcacagaa tttcaggac atgacattg 
      agaaggcca tcaaaaaag aattttctg gtgacattc 
      aggatggtc ttttggctg ttgtgagat cgattaaga 
      accaaccgg ctttcttcg ccaaatgtt tatacaaaa 
      gtatgaaag gtttgggga ccaatgacc gcgatttga 
      tcagactgg tggtcacgc ggtgcgaaa ttgacatgg 
      gggacatta aaagggaat acattaaaa accacggag 
      aatccttgg ctgatgcca tcaagggag atacgtcag 
      gagattaca aaaagtgtc ttttggccc tcattgggg 
      aagctcttc taaggtttc cacttgcaa caacttgtc 
      ccaatttcg agtcaacaa attttcaac ccaaaatga 
      atcacttcg gatgttcca aaataccaa agcactccc 
      aaattgcca catctccaa cagtaacac cttcgaaat 
      ttttcctct caagtgaag atgccgaag ttttacaca 
      aagcaatga cagggcccg gaactgacg aaaaagcca 
      tcgttaaca ttatcacga aacggtcct tagcccaac 
      gtttagaaa taatgtctc aatttaata aacaccaca 
      ataacaatt taatctccg agcttaaaa aagaattaa 
      gcggcgact tgaaacaac taattttgg ccctaatga 
      caccacgtg aagaattgt acgctgagg aattacaca 
      gggctatta gcgggttag gaaccgacg aagatgtcc 
      taattgaag ttttatgta ctttgaata acgcagaaa 
      ttatgacca tcagacatg cttatcaca aactgtttc 
      acaaaagcc tcgaaggtg acataaaag gggacacca 
      gtggctact ttaaacaac ttttggtag ccctctgcg 
      gtgttcaac gtgacgagt gtgccgcga ccgataaaa 
      ccgaggcag tttccgagg ctgaaaatc tatacaatg 
      ctggggaaa accaatggg ggactgacg aatccactt 
      ttactaaaa ttctaaccg agagaagtt atcctcaac 
      ttcggctta ttttcgcag agtatgaaa aattgactg 
      gtcacggga tcgagcaag caattaaga gtgaattct 
      ccggtgata ttaaagacg gtttattgg caattgtgg 
      agacagttc aaaataaag caaaatttt ttgccaaaa 
      aattgcata agagtatga aaggcttgg gaactaatg 
      atcgagatt tgataagag tggttgtga ccaggagtg 
      aaattgaca tgggggaaa ttaaaaatg aatatcaaa 
      aagagtacg ggaagactt tggctgagg ctattaagg 
      gcgatacat ccggcgatt atagaaaat gccttctag 
      ctcttatcg gcgaaaagt aattgtggg gccagttga 
      gtgttgcca ttttttaat attctattt attcactgt 
      attattatt attattact attattaga ttttacatt 
      attatcaat aaaatttta ttaaattt

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY