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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007422.5: 4349291..4369674
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (2) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_01478

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 0.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    mature egg deposition blocked number 1st lateral oviduct: 4 number 2nd lateral oviduct: 3 - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 20.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 30.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    pupal molt delayed (still larva) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    eclosion delayed (still pupa) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection

    eclosion not fulfilled (died as pupa) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (19 dpi)
    Days post injection

    egg production: number <50% of expected -
    mature egg deposition blocked number 1st lateral oviduct: 3 number 2nd lateral oviduct: 2 - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1
    ovary without detectable defects - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3
    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC009140 RA
    • >TC009140 RB
    CDS sequence
    • >TC009140 RA
      atgacagat ccgggagtc gggggcgac gtctcgccg 
      ggggtgccc cagataaaa aaggagttg gatggtttt 
      caagagtgt tcaccatcc aacagtgac atgtactcc 
      ccgacaacc actgttatg cacgacact ggaatcgac 
      tttcaagaa acaaatcat tacgacagt agcatacga 
      tctccagga agtccagaa cgacagtat tgctcgtca 
      acgacacaa cctcacact gactcaggg atgggacac 
      atggaggat gaaatgaaa gaagaggat tctcctcga 
      agattatgt ctcgtttgc ggtgatgtt gcctcaggt 
      tttcactac ggtgttgct tcgtgcgaa gcgtgcaaa 
      gcttttttt aagcggaca atacaaggt aatatagaa 
      tatacgtgt ccagcatct ggagaatgt gaaataaac 
      aaaagacgg agaaaagca tgccaggcg tgcaggttt 
      cgaaagtgt ttaagatct gggatgctg aaggaaggg 
      gtgcggttg gacagggtt aggggtggt aggcagaaa 
      tatagaaga aatccagat agtccatat caagtgcag 
      gtcgtttcg gcacagagg ccgatgctc caactagaa 
      gatataaaa atgctggac gcgttggca atttgcgaa 
      cccgactgt ctcgaaatc aacaaagcc ctcgaaaac 
      tccaaacac cggactctt tccatactc agcgatctg 
      tacgaccgc gaattggtg gggattatc ggctgggcc 
      aaacaaatc ccgggattc accgacctg tccctcaac 
      gaccaaatg cgactttta cagagcacg tgggcggaa 
      atacttaca ctcacgcta gcgtacagg agcgtgcct 
      ctgattcag ctcgcccga ctcaagttc gccaacgac 
      ttcaccctc gatgagaag cagtcacgg gactgtggc 
      gccatcgaa ttatatcaa acgtgttgc catgtggtc 
      gaaaggtta gataattta tcgattctg aaggaagaa 
      tactacctc ttgaaagcg ctcgttctt gcgaactcc 
      gacgtgcga ttggatgaa tctcactcg ttgaaaaaa 
      tttagggac tcgattttg tcggcgctt tcggacacc 
      gtgggcatc ctcaggcca acaggtgtg ctacaccaa 
      atccagcaa ctgctcctc tgcatgccc gccttgcgg 
      caagcggac caagtcgtc cggcgcttt tggtccgac 
      gttcaccag caagagtta gtaccaatg aataagctt 
      ttcttggaa atgttagaa gcgtactgt cggtag
    • >TC009140 RB
      atgatttgc attctgggt tttaaattt gtgaccgtc 
      gtggcgatt gccgagctc gagtcaggc tggatgcag 
      gatgtggtg tcaatgatg acagatccg ggagtcggg 
      ggcgacgtc tcgccgggg gtgccccag ataaaaaag 
      gagttggat ggttttcaa gagtgttca ccatccaac 
      agtgacatg tactccccg acaaccact gttatgcac 
      gacactgga atcgacttt caagaaaca aatcattac 
      gacagtagc atacgatct ccaggaagt ccagaacga 
      cagtattgc tcgtcaacg acacaacct cacactgac 
      tcagggatg ggacacatg gaggatgaa atgaaagaa 
      gaggattct cctcgaaga ttatgtctc gtttgcggt 
      gatgttgcc tcaggtttt cactacggt gttgcttcg 
      tgcgaagcg tgcaaagct ttttttaag cggacaata 
      caaggtaat atagaatat acgtgtcca gcatctgga 
      gaatgtgaa ataaacaaa agacggaga aaagcatgc 
      caggcgtgc aggtttcga aagtgttta agatctggg 
      atgctgaag gaaggggtg cggttggac agggttagg 
      ggtggtagg cagaaatat agaagaaat ccagatagt 
      ccatatcaa gtgcaggtc gtttcggca cagaggccg 
      atgctccaa ctagaagat ataaaaatg ctggacgcg 
      ttggcaatt tgcgaaccc gactgtctc gaaatcaac 
      aaagccctc gaaaactcc aaacaccgg actctttcc 
      atactcagc gatctgtac gaccgcgaa ttggtgggg 
      attatcggc tgggccaaa caaatcccg ggattcacc 
      gacctgtcc ctcaacgac caaatgcga cttttacag 
      agcacgtgg gcggaaata cttacactc acgctagcg 
      tacaggagc gtgcctctg attcagctc gcccgactc 
      aagttcgcc aacgacttc accctcgat gagaagcag 
      tcacgggac tgtggcgcc atcgaatta tatcaaacg 
      tgttgccat gtggtcgaa aggttagat aatttatcg 
      attctgaag gaagaatac tacctcttg aaagcgctc 
      gttcttgcg aactccgac gtgcgattg gatgaatct 
      cactcgttg aaaaaattt agggactcg attttgtcg 
      gcgctttcg gacaccgtg ggcatcctc aggccaaca 
      ggtgtgcta caccaaatc cagcaactg ctcctctgc 
      atgcccgcc ttgcggcaa gcggaccaa gtcgtccgg 
      cgcttttgg tccgacgtt caccagcaa gagttagta 
      ccaatgaat aagcttttc ttggaaatg ttagaagcg 
      tactgtcgg tag
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC009140 RA
      atttacaaa atggcagct ttgctaaat gttactcta 
      acaaaaata tgatttgca ttcgtaagt gcttgtgaa 
      aggttagtt taaaattta tgtcgtgta ttttagtgg 
      gttttaaat ttgtgaccg tcgtggcga ttgccgagc 
      tcgagtcag ggtgtcaat gatgacaga tccgggagt 
      cgggggcga cgtctcgcc gggggtgcc ccagataaa 
      aaaggagtt ggatggttt tcaagagtg ttcaccatc 
      caacagtga catgtactc cccgacaac cactgttat 
      gcacgacac tggaatcga ctttcaaga aacaaatca 
      ttacgacag tagcatacg atctccagg aagtccaga 
      acgacagta ttgctcgtc aacgacaca acctcacac 
      tgactcagg gatgggaca catggagga tgaaatgaa 
      agaagagga ttctcctcg aagattatg tctcgtttg 
      cggtgatgt tgcctcagg ttttcacta cggtgttgc 
      ttcgtgcga agcgtgcaa agctttttt taagcggac 
      aatacaagg taatataga atatacgtg tccagcatc 
      tggagaatg tgaaataaa caaaagacg gagaaaagc 
      atgccaggc gtgcaggtt tcgaaagtg tttaagatc 
      tgggatgct gaaggaagg ggtgcggtt ggacagggt 
      taggggtgg taggcagaa atatagaag aaatccaga 
      tagtccata tcaagtgca ggtcgtttc ggcacagag 
      gccgatgct ccaactaga agatataaa aatgctgga 
      cgcgttggc aatttgcga acccgactg tctcgaaat 
      caacaaagc cctcgaaaa ctccaaaca ccggactct 
      ttccatact cagcgatct gtacgaccg cgaattggt 
      ggggattat cggctgggc caaacaaat cccgggatt 
      caccgacct gtccctcaa cgaccaaat gcgactttt 
      acagagcac gtgggcgga aatacttac actcacgct 
      agcgtacag gagcgtgcc tctgattca gctcgcccg 
      actcaagtt cgccaacga cttcaccct cgatgagaa 
      gcagtcacg ggactgtgg cgccatcga attatatca 
      aacgtgttg ccatgtggt cgaaaggtt agataattt 
      atcgattct gaaggaaga atactacct cttgaaagc 
      gctcgttct tgcgaactc cgacgtgcg attggatga 
      atctcactc gttgaaaaa atttaggga ctcgatttt 
      gtcggcgct ttcggacac cgtgggcat cctcaggcc 
      aacaggtgt gctacacca aatccagca actgctcct 
      ctgcatgcc cgccttgcg gcaagcgga ccaagtcgt 
      ccggcgctt ttggtccga cgttcacca gcaagagtt 
      agtaccaat gaataagct tttcttgga aatgttaga 
      agcgtactg tcggtagcc tcgtcgtca ttcactcaa 
      ctgccatca agtttgctt tcgcaaatg tttgtcatc 
      cgtcatcta ggtttaagc gtaatttta ggcccagtg 
      atagaagag atagtagat tccttttat ttagctacg 
      gttagttgt atatatact tcatttttc gctttaatt 
      cggtgcata aattttttg tttatgcat ttttttcga 
      cttttacct cataaatat attttattt atactgtat 
      attggttca gttatagaa attaataga tccttcgaa 
      tgcttaatt tcatagagt aactaaatt gatcaatgt 
      gattagcga attcatttt taacatgcc agtaattgc 
      acaacttta atgtactta taagtttgg caccacgat 
      ttttgttac agaaattgc atcaacagc catctcaag 
      tgtaacaat taagttaaa atgtcaata aagacttgg 
      agcgggtgc agaattcac cgctaaatt cacggcaag 
      ggtggcgaa aaacaagtt tctaattac attaccttt 
      atttttatt gtctcttca gtgtttttt ttgtttcgt 
      ctttgatta attttaata aagataatg gaattaagt 
      acaagtttc gcgtctcgc tttcaatga atttaatgg 
      tcagttttg taactgtaa cagacttgt tgtttattt 
      actatattt ttgatgtga ctttatagc aataaatag 
      acaattaac aa
    • >TC009140 RB
      atttacaaa atggcagct ttgctaaat gttactcta 
      acaaaaata tgatttgca ttctgggtt ttaaatttg 
      tgaccgtcg tggcgattg ccgagctcg agtcaggct 
      ggatgcagg atgtggtgt caatgatga cagatccgg 
      gagtcgggg gcgacgtct cgccggggg tgccccaga 
      taaaaaagg agttggatg gttttcaag agtgttcac 
      catccaaca gtgacatgt actccccga caaccactg 
      ttatgcacg acactggaa tcgactttc aagaaacaa 
      atcattacg acagtagca tacgatctc caggaagtc 
      cagaacgac agtattgct cgtcaacga cacaacctc 
      acactgact cagggatgg gacacatgg aggatgaaa 
      tgaaagaag aggattctc ctcgaagat tatgtctcg 
      tttgcggtg atgttgcct caggttttc actacggtg 
      ttgcttcgt gcgaagcgt gcaaagctt tttttaagc 
      ggacaatac aaggtaata tagaatata cgtgtccag 
      catctggag aatgtgaaa taaacaaaa gacggagaa 
      aagcatgcc aggcgtgca ggtttcgaa agtgtttaa 
      gatctggga tgctgaagg aaggggtgc ggttggaca 
      gggttaggg gtggtaggc agaaatata gaagaaatc 
      cagatagtc catatcaag tgcaggtcg tttcggcac 
      agaggccga tgctccaac tagaagata taaaaatgc 
      tggacgcgt tggcaattt gcgaacccg actgtctcg 
      aaatcaaca aagccctcg aaaactcca aacaccgga 
      ctctttcca tactcagcg atctgtacg accgcgaat 
      tggtgggga ttatcggct gggccaaac aaatcccgg 
      gattcaccg acctgtccc tcaacgacc aaatgcgac 
      ttttacaga gcacgtggg cggaaatac ttacactca 
      cgctagcgt acaggagcg tgcctctga ttcagctcg 
      cccgactca agttcgcca acgacttca ccctcgatg 
      agaagcagt cacgggact gtggcgcca tcgaattat 
      atcaaacgt gttgccatg tggtcgaaa ggttagata 
      atttatcga ttctgaagg aagaatact acctcttga 
      aagcgctcg ttcttgcga actccgacg tgcgattgg 
      atgaatctc actcgttga aaaaattta gggactcga 
      ttttgtcgg cgctttcgg acaccgtgg gcatcctca 
      ggccaacag gtgtgctac accaaatcc agcaactgc 
      tcctctgca tgcccgcct tgcggcaag cggaccaag 
      tcgtccggc gcttttggt ccgacgttc accagcaag 
      agttagtac caatgaata agcttttct tggaaatgt 
      tagaagcgt actgtcggt agcctcgtc gtcattcac 
      tcaactgcc atcaagttt gctttcgca aatgtttgt 
      catccgtca tctaggttt aagcgtaat tttaggccc 
      agtgataga agagatagt agattcctt ttatttagc 
      tacggttag ttgtatata tacttcatt tttcgcttt 
      aattcggtg cataaattt tttgtttat gcatttttt 
      tcgactttt acctcataa atatatttt atttatact 
      gtatattgg ttcagttat agaaattaa tagatcctt 
      cgaatgctt aatttcata gagtaacta aattgatca 
      atgtgatta gcgaattca tttttaaca tgccagtaa 
      ttgcacaac tttaatgta cttataagt ttggcacca 
      cgatttttg ttacagaaa ttgcatcaa cagccatct 
      caagtgtaa caattaagt taaaatgtc aataaagac 
      ttggagcgg gtgcagaat tcaccgcta aattcacgg 
      caagggtgg cgaaaaaca agtttctaa ttacattac 
      ctttatttt tattgtctc ttcagtgtt ttttttgtt 
      tcgtctttg attaatttt aataaagat aatggaatt 
      aagtacaag tttcgcgtc tcgctttca atgaattta 
      atggtcagt tttgtaact gtaacagac ttgttgttt 
      atttactat atttttgat gtgacttta tagcaataa 
      atagacaat taacaa

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY