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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007423.3: 9934581..9947784
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_01050

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 100.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 7 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult nutritional state bad (cachectic) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 100.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 100.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality late (L7) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 9 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    pupal molt not fulfilled (died as pupa) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC034094 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC034094 RA
      atgccaatt caggctcca cagtggacg gagttcctg 
      tcttgtcca gtatgttgc aatgccttt gacgtcgcc 
      ctccggagc cccatcagc ctgggctgc gggcacacc 
      gtgtgcaag gcctgcctg tccaacctc caccgcaag 
      caatgcccc ttcgaccag accaccatc agcatagac 
      atcgagagt ctgcccgtc aacacggcg ctgctccag 
      ctggtgggg cccgtcatc aagaaggac gatgacgcc 
      gtcgaccac aaggtcgtc tccagagac aacctggcc 
      ttctaccag gactcgcgg aagtgcgtc gaggagctg 
      gccatgtac ttgaagcca catcccaat gggaacgtc 
      tgcggcagc ggaagcatt ctctccagg cccatgcag 
      aggaagcta gtcactttg atcaactgc cagctggtg 
      gaagacgag ggccggacg agggccatg agggccgcc 
      aggtcactg ggagagcgc actgtcact gagcttatt 
      ttacaacac cagaacccc cagcagctc tctgccaat 
      ttgtgggcc gctgtgcgg gccagaggt tgccagttt 
      ttggggcca gccatgcag gaagaggtg ttaaaacta 
      gtccttctg gctttggaa gacggctca gctttatcc 
      cgcaaagtg ttggtcatg tttgtggtg cagcgtttg 
      gagccccat tttcctcaa gcctctaag accagtata 
      ggccacgtg gtccagctt ttatacagg gcgtcttgt 
      ttcaaagtt tcgaagcgt gaaggagac tcgtctttg 
      atgcaacta aaggaggaa tttcgcact tatgaagct 
      cttcgtcgc gaacacgat gctcaaatt gttcaaatt 
      gcaactgaa gccggtttg cgaatcgct ccagatcaa 
      tggtcggct cttttgtat ggcgatacg gctcataaa 
      tctcacatg cagagcatc atcgacaag ttgcaaact 
      cctcaatct ttcgctcaa tcggtacag gaattagtt 
      attgcgtta caaaggacg ggggatccc gggaagttg 
      tcagttttg agaactcct ctggaatta ttggcggcg 
      attgatcct agtccagaa tcatcaact ccatcatgg 
      aaagaatgt agtgaagcc ctcgaggcc gttcgccta 
      gtcgtagca ggcctagta gaatttatt catcaacat 
      ggtagtcga aaattacaa gatacagca catccacaa 
      catgccaaa tataaaatc agcatgtgc cgtgattta 
      acattgcgg ggaaattgt cctcgaggt accaattgc 
      acgtttgca cattccaat gaagagttg gagaaatat 
      cgggcgaaa aaccgcaag actataatc cgcaacaag 
      gaacatcga atcgacagc caatcaccg accgagaaa 
      atctacccc caaaccgaa gactactat tcgatgccg 
      aacacagcg accgttagc cctgtgccc atcccaacc 
      gtcgtccaa atccaacgg atgggttat gacgttccc 
      ttcaaccac aacctgcct ccctacgcc ccacaaccc 
      atctacgcc caaacacct ccatatcca cacgacgtc 
      taccaaact gccccacca aacctagtt ctagccaac 
      aacgaccaa ttctaccca ccacagact gatttcaca 
      aacattggc catcagagc aactcgatg gtggagaaa 
      aaatgggat aatgtgata ccgaaaaac cagaatgtg 
      cttcaacac cacacgaaa agatcgtca acgaagagt 
      ttagctgaa ttgcatcaa cggaaacag gaggttttg 
      tcgcaactg gagaaagtt gtaggaaag acggcggca 
      acggcgatt tcacataat gcgacgagt cttgccagg 
      caagagtcg caccatgat ctggatagt ccaacatca 
      ccgtattcg ttctggtca gggcatgtc aatagtggg 
      cctactttt gtgcggtcg gattctatt ctggccgct 
      gatgatgac tatgtgccg tatgattcg ccggcgatt 
      agtaagtac gggcccatc tcgaggatg cataaggat 
      aatggacag gtttcaacg ttcagggat gggaatatg 
      tcatcgtct ttattacgc cgccctctt gcatctgct 
      agtccagtg acctcatta tactataat aataatcca 
      ccgccattc catcaaggt ccaattcca gctggtgct 
      attgttgga catcctgga ggtggcata ggatctcct 
      caattgatt tatcatcca agagttcaa gacccatcc 
      aaggaactt ttggccgaa tcgcaacga gtaaagttg 
      caattgtgc aatttagaa aaacaatta aacgaccta 
      aagttggct acacagggt gtaacaact ttaagcgaa 
      cgcgataga ctgacacag gaactgcaa ttaattgaa 
      caagggatt caagagaag cagaaagag gcctgtttg 
      aataaaatc gtccattcc ttaaaccaa gcgatgagc 
      aactacaac aacgccaac gtgaccaat ttggagaat 
      tccgaagag gcgatgtat gaagcagat attgccaac 
      gacatgcgc cagttagag atccgactg caggaagag 
      atcgaggag caagagaag atatggagc agtgaagag 
      gactccaac cagtaa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC034094 RA
      attgtgcga caacgaccc gatttgctg attaatttg 
      caattatct gaaataaag tttatgcga taattagat 
      aaatcactc tgtaaatat ttatctgag ttccccttc 
      cagtcgttc gaaatttgc gttacttat gcaaatatg 
      tttaaaaat acaagacat tattccgcc aagcacaag 
      caaaccaaa aaactgctc ggttaagta aaaattttc 
      caaaatcgc gttattatg gaaaacgct cggtatgtg 
      taatgcgca gagtgcgat caccttccc attgacgtg 
      acgtatgac gttcgagaa gatttcaca acattgttg 
      tgatgtctg gtggtgctt catgatgtg atgttctgt 
      tgtagatta cctaagaat gccaattca ggctccaca 
      gtggacgga gttcctgtc ttgtccagt atgttgcaa 
      tgcctttga cgtcgccct ccggagccc catcagcct 
      gggctgcgg gcacaccgt gtgcaaggc ctgcctgtc 
      caacctcca ccgcaagca atgcccctt cgaccagac 
      caccatcag catagacat cgagagtct gcccgtcaa 
      cacggcgct gctccagct ggtggggcc cgtcatcaa 
      gaaggacga tgacgccgt cgaccacaa ggtcgtctc 
      cagagacaa cctggcctt ctaccagga ctcgcggaa 
      gtgcgtcga ggagctggc catgtactt gaagccaca 
      tcccaatgg gaacgtctg cggcagcgg aagcattct 
      ctccaggcc catgcagag gaagctagt cactttgat 
      caactgcca gctggtgga agacgaggg ccggacgag 
      ggccatgag ggccgccag gtcactggg agagcgcac 
      tgtcactga gcttatttt acaacacca gaaccccca 
      gcagctctc tgccaattt gtgggccgc tgtgcgggc 
      cagaggttg ccagttttt ggggccagc catgcagga 
      agaggtgtt aaaactagt ccttctggc tttggaaga 
      cggctcagc tttatcccg caaagtgtt ggtcatgtt 
      tgtggtgca gcgtttgga gccccattt tcctcaagc 
      ctctaagac cagtatagg ccacgtggt ccagctttt 
      atacagggc gtcttgttt caaagtttc gaagcgtga 
      aggagactc gtctttgat gcaactaaa ggaggaatt 
      tcgcactta tgaagctct tcgtcgcga acacgatgc 
      tcaaattgt tcaaattgc aactgaagc cggtttgcg 
      aatcgctcc agatcaatg gtcggctct tttgtatgg 
      cgatacggc tcataaatc tcacatgca gagcatcat 
      cgacaagtt gcaaactcc tcaatcttt cgctcaatc 
      ggtacagga attagttat tgcgttaca aaggacggg 
      ggatcccgg gaagttgtc agttttgag aactcctct 
      ggaattatt ggcggcgat tgatcctag tccagaatc 
      atcaactcc atcatggaa agaatgtag tgaagccct 
      cgaggccgt tcgcctagt cgtagcagg cctagtaga 
      atttattca tcaacatgg tagtcgaaa attacaaga 
      tacagcaca tccacaaca tgccaaata taaaatcag 
      catgtgccg tgatttaac attgcgggg aaattgtcc 
      tcgaggtac caattgcac gtttgcaca ttccaatga 
      agagttgga gaaatatcg ggcgaaaaa ccgcaagac 
      tataatccg caacaagga acatcgaat cgacagcca 
      atcaccgac cgagaaaat ctaccccca aaccgaaga 
      ctactattc gatgccgaa cacagcgac cgttagccc 
      tgtgcccat cccaaccgt cgtccaaat ccaacggat 
      gggttatga cgttccctt caaccacaa cctgcctcc 
      ctacgcccc acaacccat ctacgccca aacacctcc 
      atatccaca cgacgtcta ccaaactgc cccaccaaa 
      cctagttct agccaacaa cgaccaatt ctacccacc 
      acagactga tttcacaaa cattggcca tcagagcaa 
      ctcgatggt ggagaaaaa atgggataa tgtgatacc 
      gaaaaacca gaatgtgct tcaacacca cacgaaaag 
      atcgtcaac gaagagttt agctgaatt gcatcaacg 
      gaaacagga ggttttgtc gcaactgga gaaagttgt 
      aggaaagac ggcggcaac ggcgatttc acataatgc 
      gacgagtct tgccaggca agagtcgca ccatgatct 
      ggatagtcc aacatcacc gtattcgtt ctggtcagg 
      gcatgtcaa tagtgggcc tacttttgt gcggtcgga 
      ttctattct ggccgctga tgatgacta tgtgccgta 
      tgattcgcc ggcgattag taagtacgg gcccatctc 
      gaggatgca taaggataa tggacaggt ttcaacgtt 
      cagggatgg gaatatgtc atcgtcttt attacgccg 
      ccctcttgc atctgctag tccagtgac ctcattata 
      ctataataa taatccacc gccattcca tcaaggtcc 
      aattccagc tggtgctat tgttggaca tcctggagg 
      tggcatagg atctcctca attgattta tcatccaag 
      agttcaaga cccatccaa ggaactttt ggccgaatc 
      gcaacgagt aaagttgca attgtgcaa tttagaaaa 
      acaattaaa cgacctaaa gttggctac acagggtgt 
      aacaacttt aagcgaacg cgatagact gacacagga 
      actgcaatt aattgaaca agggattca agagaagca 
      gaaagaggc ctgtttgaa taaaatcgt ccattcctt 
      aaaccaagc gatgagcaa ctacaacaa cgccaacgt 
      gaccaattt ggagaattc cgaagaggc gatgtatga 
      agcagatat tgccaacga catgcgcca gttagagat 
      ccgactgca ggaagagat cgaggagca agagaagat 
      atggagcag tgaagagga ctccaacca gtaaattta 
      aacccaatg ggttcagtt cttctttta tttcatgac 
      atgttttcg tgtgggcat gcaagtctg atactattt 
      tgaatcata atgggaata cggttgttg cattttttc 
      ctttatttg ataagacgt atgattcaa aatattgcg 
      atatattca gactgtttt attcacatt aaatacaat 
      aggtgcatt tcgcgtgtt tactgaatt tgatgagta 
      gttgttcca gttttattg gaaagaaac gcggcggcg 
      gtggcggcg tcttttatc actcgctcc agagaacga 
      ttagctgaa atgttatct atctttaat catactgtg 
      tgtgatcgg tatatcaat gttatgagt tgatatatt 
      ttaatttag tgtgcattt gtttgaaaa tgcaactga 
      ctatgaagt tattatgct taaatttaa ttatatagt 
      ctaatttat taagcttta tagagaaat caaatgtgt 
      gttactgtg ttacaaaga aattaccat cactgatgt 
      ttgcgagac attttcaac taagcattt atatttaat 
      atctttgta atataggta atccaacat acatgtata 
      atgtaattt gatgtatgc attcagtga ttatttaga 
      gctgtcatt ttttattgt agtaacgat tctttgtta 
      tatattttt cctacaaaa gtatttatg actatgaaa 
      atttacgcg cgctttatt ctgttttac atttttcct 
      attattata tttatacaa ttgtgtcat atcgtgtgt 
      ttgcaattt atacaaatt gtgtttttc gtttgactt 
      ttacttaat ggtaccaca tttaaaatg tattatcgt 
      tttgttagt aactgagga aatactttt tttaaatgc 
      caaagtatg tttttccaa gtcgtaatg ttctggatg 
      gctcttgtt gtaattgtt tgccacttt tctatcatg 
      ccataaata aataactgc tttgacagc tctgcctta 
      ccaatttat tgtaataag atttaaaat tctttgcta 
      aagcaagtc tgcaatatt agtctaggc tgtgtaacg 
      taattgttt actcttttc gtggttgta cctaaagtt 
      gtttatgtt tgccctata gtcaagttt tatttattg 
      agtcatctg gcattcatt ttattatta ggtcatgtt 
      gcacatgtg attaatatt taactattt atactgatt 
      acattaatc acgtatgta tatttgggt ggaagtata 
      taaattata ccaatattt aaataaatt attattacc 

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY