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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007423.3: 4241978..4261351
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_00969

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 40.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    pupa eclosion not fulfilled (died as pupa) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    previtellogenic egg chamber mostly not present - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4
    mature egg sometimes size multiplied - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4

    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 70.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 100.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 7 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    pupal molt delayed (still larva) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    larva lethality late (L7) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033980 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033980 RA
      atgccaact caactcggc aacgacaac agccacgaa 
      attcgggcg aaaattgcc tacaatggt gaagttttg 
      atcacctac attgatcaa agcattacc ttcgaggaa 
      ttactgcaa gaagtcgta gtaatttgt cggtttgca 
      ccgaaccag ctctttaca atgaagtgg gttgatgag 
      gagggcgac ccatgtatt atttcgacc caaatggag 
      ctcgacgag gctctgcgt ctttacgaa gtgaaccgt 
      gacaacgaa gtcaccata cacgacaag tcccaaacc 
      tataattcc tttatcatg atttttatc acgcctaag 
      ccacctatg tgcggcatc tccaactgc ccaaaacgc 
      tccggccct tcgtcggta tcgattcaa aggcgccac 
      cgtagttgt ccccggcct gacgtctgc gtgattgcc 
      aaatcggcg ccgtctcgc catcccttc atctatcgc 
      ggcgtcgcg acgtccaac gcaccggca acgctgcca 
      cacacgtcc cccgtcgtt agttttcag tacctgtcc 
      gcttattcg caaacccct cttcccgct acgacagtg 
      tcggaccgc ggccgcagc ccccgaagg aaccagaat 
      ggcaccgtc aacaaccac cagcaaagc ttgcccgtc 
      agtatcgaa gatcgcccc tcggtgtct caaacgtac 
      gctggggcc cccgtcaat tccaacaat aacacgacg 
      acgtcgtcg tccagcggc caattgcaa ggcgagttc 
      gaggaagtg gcggcgttt tcgaggcgg ccctcgttg 
      gatttgtcg ctggttggg ccgcaaggt gccctggcg 
      gggatcttg tgtgctgct catagtagt aaacaggga 
      gggacgttg tctgcgggt aacactttg acgagggtc 
      gggagtaaa catacggcg gtggagtat gcagttcca 
      catcatctc taccaccac cacccgact tacatagaa 
      taccatcat aagcagttg tccttttcg gacgatgat 
      agcagctcg gagcccgga tatgccaca gatgggtcg 
      cgttacgtg aattttaac atgggggac ggtaaaccc 
      tggtggggc aattttaaa atatggaaa gggatgtcc 
      gatgctgcg attctctac tcccttcat ccgactttg 
      agctatgac gcgtcctcg gttttagcg gccgcgttc 
      cccggagtt ttcccgaat gtgccgcca cagcccgga 
      atgccctgt caaggggag gacaggagt atttacagg 
      aggggtgct cgtcgttgg aggaaactt taccgtgtc 
      aatggacac atctttcag gccaaacgt ttcaatcga 
      agagccttt tgtgcattt tgcaatgac cggatttgg 
      ggtttgggg cgacaaggt ttcaagtgc attcaatgc 
      aagctcctc gtccataaa aaatgccac aaactagta 
      caaatcccc tgtacagtc gacctagtt gaacagtct 
      atcagagaa gaacacaac ggggaatcg cctttagta 
      acagtaacc tccaatagt gaaattata tcggaaata 
      cgcgacagg gagtacccc gaaccgcca ccagatgtg 
      acaggtgag tctgtggcc gtggaggac cccaaccgg 
      cagtcggac gagctggag gtgggctct cagcgtcag 
      tactcgttg aacgacttc gaattgatc cgagtgatc 
      ggtcgaggc tcgtacgcc aaagtcctg atggttgag 
      ttgaagaaa accaagcgt atttacgca atgaaagtg 
      attaagaag gctttagtg accgacgat gaggatatc 
      gattgggtg cagaccgaa aaacacgtc ttcgaaacg 
      gcctcaaat catccgttt ttggtcgga ttgcattcc 
      tgcttccaa acaccgtct aggttgttt ttcgttatt 
      gagtttgtc cgtggtggc gatttgatg tttcatatg 
      caaagacag cggcgtttg cccgaggag catgcgcgc 
      ttttacgcc gccgagata tcattagcg ttgaatttt 
      ttgcattgt aaagggatt atttaccgc gatttgaaa 
      ctagataat gtgttgttg gatcatgaa ggacacatt 
      aaattgact gattatgga atgtgtaaa gaggggatt 
      aggcccggt gataccact tcgacgttt tgtggaacg 
      cctaattat atagcccct gagatattg cgtggagag 
      gattatgga ttctcagtc gattggtgg gctttaggg 
      gtgttgttg tatgaaatg ttggcggga aggtcaccg 
      tttgatatt gcgggagcg tcagaaaat cccgatcaa 
      aatactgaa gattacctg tttcaagtt attttggaa 
      aaaactatt cggattcca agatcattg agcgtcaaa 
      gcggccaac gtacttaaa ggcttcctc aataaaaac 
      ccagcggat agactcgga tgcacaagt catgactcc 
      ttcgtcgaa atcaccagt catcccttt ttcaagagt 
      attgattgg gacatggtt tttgcaagt cgacatgag 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033980 RA
      actgttttg tggttgaca ttgtcgtgt aattgtttt 
      tgtttcttt tttaatttg cacaaaatc acagactgg 
      gaccaaaga attgggaga aaaaatgcc aactcaact 
      cggcaacga caacagcca cgaaattcg ggcgaaaat 
      tgcctacaa tggtgaagt tttgatcac ctacattga 
      tcaaagcat taccttcga ggaattact gcaagaagt 
      cgtagtaat ttgtcggtt tgcaccgaa ccagctctt 
      tacaatgaa gtgggttga tgaggaggg cgacccatg 
      tattatttc gacccaaat ggagctcga cgaggctct 
      gcgtcttta cgaagtgaa ccgtgacaa cgaagtcac 
      catacacga caagtccca aacctataa ttcctttat 
      catgatttt tatcacgcc taagccacc tatgtgcgg 
      catctccaa ctgcccaaa acgctccgg cccttcgtc 
      ggtatcgat tcaaaggcg ccaccgtag ttgtccccg 
      gcctgacgt ctgcgtgat tgccaaatc ggcgccgtc 
      tcgccatcc cttcatcta tcgcggcgt cgcgacgtc 
      caacgcacc ggcaacgct gccacacac gtcccccgt 
      cgttagttt tcagtacct gtccgctta ttcgcaaac 
      ccctcttcc cgctacgac agtgtcgga ccgcggccg 
      cagcccccg aaggaacca gaatggcac cgtcaacaa 
      ccaccagca aagcttgcc cgtcagtat cgaagatcg 
      cccctcggt gtctcaaac gtacgctgg ggcccccgt 
      caattccaa caataacac gacgacgtc gtcgtccag 
      cggccaatt gcaaggcga gttcgagga agtggcggc 
      gttttcgag gcggccctc gttggattt gtcgctggt 
      tgggccgca aggtgccct ggcggggat cttgtgtgc 
      tgctcatag tagtaaaca gggagggac gttgtctgc 
      gggtaacac tttgacgag ggtcgggag taaacatac 
      ggcggtgga gtatgcagt tccacatca tctctacca 
      ccaccaccc gacttacat agaatacca tcataagca 
      gttgtcctt ttcggacga tgatagcag ctcggagcc 
      cggatatgc cacagatgg gtcgcgtta cgtgaattt 
      taacatggg ggacggtaa accctggtg gggcaattt 
      taaaatatg gaaagggat gtccgatgc tgcgattct 
      ctactccct tcatccgac tttgagcta tgacgcgtc 
      ctcggtttt agcggccgc gttccccgg agttttccc 
      gaatgtgcc gccacagcc cggaatgcc ctgtcaagg 
      ggaggacag gagtattta caggagggg tgctcgtcg 
      ttggaggaa actttaccg tgtcaatgg acacatctt 
      tcaggccaa acgtttcaa tcgaagagc cttttgtgc 
      attttgcaa tgaccggat ttggggttt ggggcgaca 
      aggtttcaa gtgcattca atgcaagct cctcgtcca 
      taaaaaatg ccacaaact agtacaaat cccctgtac 
      agtcgacct agttgaaca gtctatcag agaagaaca 
      caacgggga atcgccttt agtaacagt aacctccaa 
      tagtgaaat tatatcgga aatacgcga cagggagta 
      ccccgaacc gccaccaga tgtgacagg tgagtctgt 
      ggccgtgga ggaccccaa ccggcagtc ggacgagct 
      ggaggtggg ctctcagcg tcagtactc gttgaacga 
      cttcgaatt gatccgagt gatcggtcg aggctcgta 
      cgccaaagt cctgatggt tgagttgaa gaaaaccaa 
      gcgtattta cgcaatgaa agtgattaa gaaggcttt 
      agtgaccga cgatgagga tatcgattg ggtgcagac 
      cgaaaaaca cgtcttcga aacggcctc aaatcatcc 
      gtttttggt cggattgca ttcctgctt ccaaacacc 
      gtctaggtt gtttttcgt tattgagtt tgtccgtgg 
      tggcgattt gatgtttca tatgcaaag acagcggcg 
      tttgcccga ggagcatgc gcgctttta cgccgccga 
      gatatcatt agcgttgaa ttttttgca ttgtaaagg 
      gattattta ccgcgattt gaaactaga taatgtgtt 
      gttggatca tgaaggaca cattaaatt gactgatta 
      tggaatgtg taaagaggg gattaggcc cggtgatac 
      cacttcgac gttttgtgg aacgcctaa ttatatagc 
      ccctgagat attgcgtgg agaggatta tggattctc 
      agtcgattg gtgggcttt aggggtgtt gttgtatga 
      aatgttggc gggaaggtc accgtttga tattgcggg 
      agcgtcaga aaatcccga tcaaaatac tgaagatta 
      cctgtttca agttatttt ggaaaaaac tattcggat 
      tccaagatc attgagcgt caaagcggc caacgtact 
      taaaggctt cctcaataa aaacccagc ggatagact 
      cggatgcac aagtcatga ctccttcgt cgaaatcac 
      cagtcatcc ctttttcaa gagtattga ttgggacat 
      ggtttttgc aagtcgaca tgaggccaa gtaagtcga 
      tcttgcaaa atattttct gccttcctc tcaattgaa 
      aattgcact ttattatat aaaaccgct attcgttgg 
      ttcttccat tgataaaat aatgcgagt gtggggaaa 
      ttgcgaatt ttccctcac cgcctttct gttacctag 
      cacagaacg cagtaggtg ttgacgcct ctaaaaaca 
      aatcaatat tgttgcaaa cattaaaca atatactag 
      aaaaattgc caacgaagc tttataata ataaccata 
      gggaaattt tctgcactc tgacttgat agttgtaaa 
      tacattaaa aaaattgat gggagaata ggtacgttg 
      gaattgatt gtttttttc tatgttcga tttattatt 
      gttaatgtt tcgagaaaa gttttttta atgttttta 
      tcttctgat gttctttta gttaacgac gattccgtt 
      gactcttgc acacatttc tctatcgta ttattgaat 
      ttagtatta aaaaattga aacaaatca ttgactgat 
      gtcgtcaca gcaaaacat tcgtgattg ttactagaa 
      ttttgtata atatataca gattgagaa tgactatat 
      aaacattta gagtagcta caaagaata tatctcgct 
      ttacaaaca atttattat agtcattgg tattccttc 
      catttatta tttttaagg agacagtgt taagtatta 
      atttatatc aattaaagt attattttc tacattccg 
      caatacttt gggaactac aaacaacta tgttagcat 
      tatgttttc tagattccg tatcaatat ttgtatgat 
      ttaataaag aactaaacc agaa

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY