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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 607970..623697
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_00795

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 0.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 0.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 20.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection

    eclosion not fulfilled (not completely eclosed) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 6 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (41 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Adult morphology
    motility decreased - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 8 (19 dpi)
    Days post injection

    egg production: number no/almost no eggs -
    mature egg deposition blocked number 1st lateral oviduct: >5 number 2nd lateral oviduct: - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4
    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC031995 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC031995 RA
      atggatatc aatcaggta cccgtaacg attccaatg 
      aatcacgaa gccatgtgg agttacacc tcgccccca 
      cacatatcg ctgtgtacg gcccctcca ggtgctcct 
      ccacacatg cacagttgt catatgcac aatgtatac 
      caagcgccc catcaactc gtaccccaa caattcccc 
      ggttgtctt ccacatcag ggttatggg ggcttccct 
      actccgcct agtgccctt tccgtctca aaccaacac 
      tacaaccaa catctcccg cctcagaga cctgatagt 
      ctcgaactg gagctcctc aacgatcat cattcacac 
      acacattca gccctgcat ggtgcgccc ccattacat 
      gtgtctcca cttcaagtc acaccacct gcatcttta 
      ttcttatcg gctgagacg agaggcaat caattggag 
      ttgctacat gcgaggtcg agacagcac agaaatccg 
      cgtttgcaa ccaccgagg acgcgttgg catcataat 
      gcacccatt atttcggcg cccgctcag tattcaggc 
      ttcctactt catttcctt gcaatgttt tcgaacccg 
      ccaatgtct ccattcagc caaaccgat ctcagtagt 
      tccgacaca acagaaacg gagaattac gaagctctt 
      ctaaatttg gctgaacaa ttaggcgaa gcgaaacct 
      cgaggttta ggaaaatta gaaattgag tcgcttctc 
      agttacaaa tttaatgcc gatactcat caaggggat 
      cagacttca tgtgtggtg tgcatgtgc gattttgaa 
      gccagacaa gtgctcaga gtcttgcct tgctcacac 
      gaattccat gccaaatgt atcgataag tggctcaga 
      tcaaacagg acctgtcct atatgccgt gggaacgct 
      tcggactat ttcaacacc agtgattag
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC031995 RA
      tagttttgc ccaacgctg tatgtatta ttttgtgat 
      acatttcat ctaagagaa ctaaaaaag acacaagaa 
      attgataag gagtgacat gtttcgaga taaataagc 
      agaatcttt tttaagtag ttgataatg cgtttcata 
      aacaaattg acagctttt actatttat aatactaac 
      tttatttgt ttacttcag gtctttttg gaacaagag 
      ttactatgt tttgttttt tttttcaag ttaagcaaa 
      ctgtttgta taataaaat tacgttaac tgatttttc 
      ttttttatt tttataata acaaactta aatttttaa 
      tgagttttg cttttttga gcattatgt acgtttttg 
      accgttttt gtccttttt ctttttgtg aaattttga 
      aaaatcgct aaatttggt ggtaatact tatataatt 
      tttatttca agcttgaga agataacct gtggagaac 
      ttgtaataa aacaacgat tgttatgca acgttttgt 
      ctattattt ataacacat acatcatca ggcacttgg 
      taacaatac atttgtatg aaatttaaa tgtgaataa 
      caatgtcat taacattat gtggatcga aatttagaa 
      aaagagcat gttaaacat cactcagat aatttttaa 
      ttatttttt atttcaatt gttttagca cgtttttct 
      gccaatcaa ttttgctaa accattcca aaacttagc 
      taaattaag taaaagatg ttgggaggt tttagtatg 
      gttgtaaat aattttacc aaaaataag taaagtaaa 
      agtaacttt tatctttga aaatattac tttatgcat 
      aattgttaa aattttaat tgtctctgc tgctttttg 
      gttgttgaa gtttttgtt ttaatttaa ttatattta 
      atttaataa gaagttgca tcttaaaat gaggaaaat 
      agaaatgaa tttatcttc gaaatgttt taatatttt 
      ataaaattc ttacaaaat atttataaa ttaagtaaa 
      atattgaat cgaatcagt ttcaagtat attgtcaaa 
      aattgcatt ttaaaagtt ttaattttt tgattatga 
      tctctaaac agaaatttg ttcttagaa ctctaaaac 
      accatggat tttatatca tggttacat ggagtcata 
      aaaattttt gtgaattca ctttttacc tctttccaa 
      atcgcagat atttttata ataggcaat actaattgt 
      ttgtggtgt tataatatt ttctttaca caaatttgt 
      ttatttttg taaaaacaa tttatttga ctacgtctt 
      taccctggc acccccaaa catcatcag aaataaaag 
      gagcagact agcattaca aaaagatgt ggacatgga 
      gtaagtcaa ggcaaagca atttaactc aacttaccg 
      tttgaaact ttgaaactt acagggtgc caaagttta 
      gaaattatt ttgattttc ctataatta cttcgtaac 
      tgagtacat agagaaagt tcctattct ataaaaatc 
      gaatgaaaa atcaaatac agaaattta ataatcgtc 
      caatagttc tttaacaaa ataaaaatg actttttgt 
      attgtacac aacacgggc gtcttgctt tacagaacg 
      tttcctttt aactcgctg atacaattt aatttacct 
      aaatttatt tgtttaaac attcagtgc ttgttaatt 
      atttcactg ttttaatat gtctgttaa tattattgt 
      gccatcagc attgaaaat gaagctgga agagtttcg 
      aaaacgtgt tttgcaata aaaattaag aaacctttg 
      tattaactg ttagccatt acctaaaaa tcatactct 
      gttgttttt gtaatttga atcaataaa tatctatca 
      tctgtacct gagagcgaa aacagtttt atccaaaat 
      gctcaattt tcaggatta atttaaagc aaaaattat 
      catttacct agtaaacaa tgtcacaat tttactaaa 
      catttgtgg acggttatt ttgttatgg aatttttga 
      gatatttgt tttcattcg atttataat caataaaaa 
      gtactaaag ggagttgat acttaacac cctacacat 
      ataaagata gattttttt acgtatcca aaaagccaa 
      aataaatta gtctcatcc aagtgataa attactgtt 
      taatgcgtg aaatagatt ttttaaaca atttaaatg 
      taattattt atcaaaaag aaggttagt cgtttttcg 
      gaagatctt cagtatttg aacgtaagg aagatttct 
      gcaataatc cttacattc ccctggttt aagctgtgg 
      catatcgta ttttgctgt tctgatgga tttgcattc 
      atttctagt tgaaattta aagtctttt ttggttttt 
      ttggcacat ttaacattt tctgtgaaa tttttaact 
      aaaaaattt tttataggg gagtccccc gttacgtcg 
      tcccagata ccgtgatag gaatgactt catacacgc 
      acatcatca aacgttttt acccagtcc tccacccgt 
      tgctcacgc ccatcccca tcagtctac tgtaatgat 
      ggatatcaa tcaggtacc cgtaacgat tccaatgaa 
      tcacgaagc catgtggag ttacacctc gcccccaca 
      catatcgct gtgtacggc ccctccagg tgctcctcc 
      acacatgca cagttgtca tatgcacaa tgtatacca 
      agcgcccca tcaactcgt accccaaca attccccgg 
      ttgtcttcc acatcaggg ttatggggg cttccctac 
      tccgcctag tgccctttc cgtctcaaa ccaacacta 
      caaccaaca tctcccgcc tcagagacc tgatagtct 
      cgaactgga gctcctcaa cgatcatca ttcacacac 
      acattcagc cctgcatgg tgcgccccc attacatgt 
      gtctccact tcaagtcac accacctgc atctttatt 
      cttatcggc tgagacgag aggcaatca attggagtt 
      gctacatgc gaggtcgag acagcacag aaatccgcg 
      tttgcaacc accgaggac gcgttggca tcataatgc 
      acccattat ttcggcgcc cgctcagta ttcaggctt 
      cctacttca tttccttgc aatgttttc gaacccgcc 
      aatgtctcc attcagcca aaccgatct cagtagttc 
      cgacacaac agaaacgga gaattacga agctcttct 
      aaatttggc tgaacaatt aggcgaagc gaaacctcg 
      aggtttagg aaaattaga aattgagtc gcttctcag 
      ttacaaatt taatgccga tactcatca aggggatca 
      gacttcatg tgtggtgtg catgtgcga ttttgaagc 
      cagacaagt gctcagagt cttgccttg ctcacacga 
      attccatgc caaatgtat cgataagtg gctcagatc 
      aaacaggac ctgtcctat atgccgtgg gaacgcttc 
      ggactattt caacaccag tgattagaa tttcgaaaa 
      aagtcccaa cggaaacaa tagcctccc ttttaaatt 
      ttttttcag aattgaaag ttttgttgt caggtgcca 
      ttagtttgc cagtaatag atttataat atcactaat 
      gaacaaaaa tatatatgt gttaacact tcctatttt 
      acttatctc gtagatatc gtaagcttg aaattgtta 
      gcaattatt gtcagtaag atttaggtg agccacatt 
      ttgttttat tattagtgt ctgtattca tgtgtcaat 
      gtcgtacac ctaattctt cattgtaac tacctctaa 
      tacaacaga gtcgtcaaa tttgcgcaa tcaactctg 
      tatatacat accttttga tttttattt gtttgtttg 
      tgtgagtgt acgtaccat gtactacat cttccatga 
      taatgttgt tcgttgtgt aattttttg ttactaacg 
      gttacataa ggcttatcg ttaaattaa ttttaaatg 
      agtgtgcct ttttatgca ccgaggtgt taaattggc 
      tctaggttt agttgtatt attttgctt atctaaaaa 
      aattaaaaa aaaatgtta caattctcc gatgtcttg 
      cacacacat gctttaact acactatac gtaaaattt 
      catttgtac ttattactt tctctcgat aatattgca 
      gtacaattc aacgctttt aatgtcatt ttcaccatt 
      gttagacta aagtaaatt ttatcgggt ggtaattat 
      tgtacagaa aataattta atgtaatag gtgtgcctt 
      tatattgta caattcaac atctgccat tccgtttga 
      tttgcaaat atttttaaa atatgatac aaaaaaata 
      aaagaaaaa ttattcaaa tggtatgca ggactgcct 
      caaaagtca aacggatta gataatacg tcttagagc 
      tgaagaatt gttctgttt tattaattt ttaagtgta 
      gctttatta ttttaagtt ttcgtcttc attaaacta 
      gaattttag tttcgttct tcgttgtta aaaaatcct 
      ttgtggcag ttagtatat ttacaacaa cattttgaa 
      aatgccttt agttgttaa gcaccctca cttgatggc 
      gtactgttg gagttttta acacattcc ctaaatagc 
      tgaatatac gttgtcagt aactatact agtgaccca 
      cgtataatt attgacaac gtatgtgtc catgattga 
      tttaatttg cgttcgttg aaatggcta aaattgttt 
      cgtattgtt taatttgct caatttaat atgttaagg 
      gatggaata gtttgtctc gtagccatt ttatagatt 
      gaagaaaaa gaaatgatt tttgttgtt tggatgtgt 
      aatgttttt gttgcaatt gcgtgaaat actcagtag 
      agggtgccg ttgttgttc agtatacac atatctcag 
      acacaagtg caatatgaa aatcatttt agcattttt 
      tcaaacatg aactagcaa tattaatag tctaaggca 
      ttcacattt agcaattac tgcataatc aaactatag 
      aattgtatt tttgtgaac gtgaatacc taagtgata 
      cttttgctt ttagtggat tttaatatt tatgtattc 
      ataggagct tatagtggc tactatact agttcttat 
      ttcaataaa atattcaaa agatt

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY