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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007418.3: 4365581..4372318
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_00502

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 0.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    TR: 47342 potentially confused/crosscontaminated with : iB # (comma separated) 00486
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 0.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 0.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032364 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032364 RA
      atggtttta ggcaaaggc tcattcggc aaagtaatg 
      ttggctgaa aggaaagga acggacgaa ttgtacgca 
      ataaaaatt ttgaaaaag gacataatc atccaagac 
      gacgacgtc gaatgcacc atggtggaa aagcgcgtc 
      ctggctctc tccaacaaa ccgcctttc ctagtccaa 
      ctccattcg tgtttccaa acaatggac cggctgtac 
      tttgttatg gaatacgtg aacggcggt gatctcatg 
      ttccaaatt cagcaatgt ggcaaattt aaagaacct 
      gttgcggtt ttttattcg gctgaaatt gccatcggt 
      ttgttcttt ttacacagc cggggtata gtttacagg 
      gacctgaaa ctcgataac gttttattg gatcaagat 
      ggacacatc aaaattgcc gactttggg atgtgcaag 
      gaagggatt acgggcgat aaaactacg aaaactttc 
      tgtggtacc cctgactac atcgcaccc gagataatt 
      ttgtaccaa ccgtacgga aaatcggtc gattggtgg 
      gcttacggt gtcctgctg tacgaaatg ttggtcgga 
      cagccccct ttcgacgga gaggacgag gaagagttg 
      tttgcagct atcacagat cacaacgtt agctatccg 
      aagggtttg tccaaagaa gccaaggat gtgtgcaaa 
      gggcttttg accaaaaac ccgaacaaa cggctgggt 
      tgcggtccg cacggggag gaagacgtc cgtattcat 
      gctttcttt agacgaatc gattgggaa aagattgaa 
      aatcgggag gttcagccc cctttcaag ccgaaaatt 
      aaacatcgc aaagatgtc agcaatttt gataagcag 
      ttcacttcg gaaaaaacg gatctgacg cccaccgat 
      aaattgttt atgatgaat ctggatcag acggagttt 
      atgggattt tcgttcctc aatccggaa tttatccaa 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032364 RA
      aatattgta tacctacgt ctataaaaa aataaaata 
      ttgaatagc agacgctaa atttgtcac agttggaaa 
      aagtttaga aaaacgtaa ccgtttttg aagaattat 
      tgaataaaa taaaccaaa acatttgac taacaacat 
      tttttttag atataccta cgtctataa aaaataaaa 
      tattgaata gcagacgct aaatttgtc acagttgga 
      aaaaagtga ccgttttta aaagaatta ttgcaataa 
      aataagcca aaacatttt tcaacacaa ttttgggaa 
      cagtttaca actttgtgg aaaaattgc gttatttgt 
      ttttttatt tctaaattt ttgtgtttc attgttcct 
      ctaatttga cttcgtaga tctcatttt tatggtatt 
      tttaaaggt aaaaattaa tttttggag gaaataatt 
      gggtctcca atttagttt ttccaaaaa gtaaattaa 
      tatttgttc aaccagaaa acaattcgt tcggtacat 
      attttttta ttttgtttt ttgatttct ttgacagat 
      tttgttcta aatgtttat tcatagtta atagaaact 
      tgattgaaa aattggaag tgagcactg tttctccag 
      tgctttgat tgttttttt atttccaaa tttttatgt 
      ttgattatt tctccaatg acttcgtag atctcagtt 
      ggaggatag gtttgaaag gtaaaaatc gatttttga 
      aaggaaaaa tgtagcgaa atatccgaa ttaggtttt 
      tcttaaaag taaataaat gtttatttc aatcattcg 
      ttcaaaaca tattttttt attttgttt attaatttt 
      tttgctaga ttttgttct gatttactt tttttctaa 
      atatttata catagttat agaataatg tataatttt 
      ttagcagaa aggactttg ctctaacaa atcaaacaa 
      ttgaatgtt attggttat tatgataaa cagagagta 
      actagaagt ggttataat aaatcagtg gcgatatga 
      ctaattctg ataaacaaa taaagtaaa taaacaaat 
      aaatccatt gttttccat ttcccaatt ttcacaatt 
      actacgtaa acgtaccta cgtaaaaaa gtcgttagt 
      caaagggtt atcagagaa aataattta ttcaatttt 
      tttacaaaa tcccttttt ttacaaagt taattagcg 
      cagtaacag caacatttt gtggcccct ttagttaga 
      aaagaacgt tttattttc tccgtgttt tttacgatg 
      cccctcgac gtgatatca aaaatacaa atcaagatc 
      aaacagctt taatatttc tcaatatat tggctggaa 
      tggctattt tatcgccaa tatgaatag taaaatata 
      cagtttgat ggtttacag aacaggaaa gacttaaca 
      ttaattgtt tataattaa taaattttt aagaaaaac 
      gtcaataac caagaagcc gtcgatcac gaccgacaa 
      agacgtccc tcacaacat gggcaaaaa gacataatt 
      agggcgagc gatttcaat ttcctcatg gttttaggc 
      aaaggctca ttcggcaaa gtaatgttg gctgaaagg 
      aaaggaacg gacgaattg tacgcaata aaaattttg 
      aaaaaggac ataatcatc caagacgac gacgtcgaa 
      tgcaccatg gtggaaaag cgcgtcctg gctctctcc 
      aacaaaccg cctttccta gtccaactc cattcgtgt 
      ttccaaaca atggaccgg ctgtacttt gttatggaa 
      tacgtgaac ggcggtgat ctcatgttc caaattcag 
      caatgtggc aaatttaaa gaacctgtt gcggttttt 
      tattcggct gaaattgcc atcggtttg ttcttttta 
      cacagccgg ggtatagtt tacagggac ctgaaactc 
      gataacgtt ttattggat caagatgga cacatcaaa 
      attgccgac tttgggatg tgcaaggaa gggattacg 
      ggcgataaa actacgaaa actttctgt ggtacccct 
      gactacatc gcacccgag ataattttg taccaaccg 
      tacggaaaa tcggtcgat tggtgggct tacggtgtc 
      ctgctgtac gaaatgttg gtcggacag ccccctttc 
      gacggagag gacgaggaa gagttgttt gcagctatc 
      acagatcac aacgttagc tatccgaag ggtttgtcc 
      aaagaagcc aaggatgtg tgcaaaggg cttttgacc 
      aaaaacccg aacaaacgg ctgggttgc ggtccgcac 
      ggggaggaa gacgtccgt attcatgct ttctttaga 
      cgaatcgat tgggaaaag attgaaaat cgggaggtt 
      cagccccct ttcaagccg aaaattaaa catcgcaaa 
      gatgtcagc aattttgat aagcagttc acttcggaa 
      aaaacggat ctgacgccc accgataaa ttgtttatg 
      atgaatctg gatcagacg gagtttatg ggattttcg 
      ttcctcaat ccggaattt atccaacat gtttaagtg 
      tttacgata cgtatctct ttttttaat atttagagt 
      agcgtagtt gcgttcgca atttgcatc tcagtcgtt 
      cttgagcaa tgtttattt cgatataat cgactattt 
      atatatgaa tatactcac ctaaagtat gcatgattt 
      gcattcgaa gtagttaat gtatagtgc caaaaaacg 
      gaactttct catcccaat gttaagtaa taaaagtgt 
      acataaata tattaagta acgtagtgt ttcttgttc 
      cactctgaa acatatcaa atattacat accacgacc 
      gttgaggag cgcaagagt ggttattta accaaagct 
      tgatacgta aggagggtc cagttcccg tagacctag 
      tacatagtg aagcatttc gttgataca gttttattt 
      tagcgattg tattattat ccccagtat tgaaactca 
      ttaagcgac atctgtgac ccctagagg atattgaaa 
      ctgtattta taaacttag tcatcgctt tcgcttagt 
      gtttctttc gctactagt gatgaattg tgatttttg 
      agcaaattg acaatctta agcgaaaca aactaactg 
      atattgtaa actaagcat tccacaaat gcagttgag 
      acattcctt agttgtagc tttcaaaat gactgactt 
      gcaaattgc ctgcttacc acatctcgt ttttactct 
      cgacaactg tggcacttt agaaacagt tatattgta 
      attactaat ggtaacatt gttgttcac gcgtctttt 
      tcttacagt tcttccagt catgacaat gacgtgatt 
      tgtgaatgt agttattta taagtatat ttaaaatta 
      tcaaatatg tacctattt ctccaagcg gtgtaatct 
      tgacgtgag ccacacctc tcaaaagaa atatttttt 
      aagattgtg gcagtgtta atattcaaa ttgttccca 
      aaacgatag tgtttcaca cagaaagcc actcaactg 
      tactactgc ccgctcaag actcctaaa ttgtcagct 
      tttctaatc gatctacaa cactaaaca acacaatct 
      ggcccggct tttgtgtga aataaccac aaccgaact 
      tatttttaa acaatgtcg gttgttcaa gtcaaaaaa 
      tcactttgc tgtgtgttg gacaagtta aggaattac 
      ttctttgtt ggatttctt aaatgttga tcctgtcta 
      aattaattt aagttatta attaatatt gttattaat 
      tccgttaca tatagttta tttttgtta ttgcgatat 
      ctttcacat tgccatttt gcatccaac cactattac 
      gaatttaat aattcttta ctatttttt taaaggaat 
      taaaattaa ttgttggag ggttggtgt aaggggcat 
      tacgtatct gtaagtgca tgtgacatt ctagtcatt 
      tgtaacaaa tgctatcta gtctcataa tgtatggtc 
      taagtgatc tttttgata taatctgtt tactgttag 
      aatctgata tgtattatt cttgttgta accattact 
      tattcatgt attataa

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY