Please wait ...
Gene information
General information
TC000449 Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 11135524..11146470
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

    • {{ goTerm.term }}
      ({{ goTerm.evidence }}){{ goTerm.evidenceTooltip }}
      {{goTerm.showAll ? '[-]' : '[+]'}}
      Status: {{ goTerm.status }}
      Evidence: {{ goTerm.evidence }} ({{ goTerm.evidenceTooltip }})
      Reference: {{ goTerm.referenceText }}
      Quotation: {{ goTerm.quotation }}
      Submitter: {{ }}

    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
      {{ unavailableText }}

    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_00096

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 20.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality early (L5/6) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC000449 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC000449 RA
      atgaagata ttaatcctc gtatcgctt gtggcattt 
      tttgccttc acaagcgga gttttcgtc cctccccga 
      ccaggacat aagcgtttg gtagattca aaagaatgc 
      acttgggga ccttcatac tggtgccag aatttaacg 
      gcggcttcc gactgccgc gctgtgaga cactgcatc 
      caaacggtt tgggtgcac aagcagttg cccccagat 
      ggtagtagc atttgtcag acttgtctc gatatggtt 
      aaacaagca cgagaccaa cttgaaagt aacgagacc 
      caagagttg atcaaagaa gtgtttgaa gggtcatgc 
      catctcttg cactttaaa gaaatcgtt aaagagtgc 
      gacaaaatc gctgatcag tacatcccc gaattgatt 
      gatacttta gcttcggaa atgaaccca caagtcgtg 
      tgttccgtg gctggttta tgtaacagt gaaaaggtc 
      cagaaattg atagctgag gaaaaaggt ttgaagcca 
      caaaatgtg ggcacttgt gaaggttgc cagactgtt 
      gttgggata atggaggag aagtttaat aaaatgtca 
      cgcgacgat gtgttgcaa agcttctta cagatttgt 
      gggcgaact ggcagtttg tcagatggg tgcagcaac 
      attgttatc acatacttc aacgaaatt tacaaccat 
      ttgaaagac aatttcaat ccgactgat ttttgtttg 
      atgactgga gagtgtagc tcaaagttt cacactcat 
      gctaatgtc gaaatcacg ccaatgtcg cacattggg 
      tacgtgcaa gttggaggg aaacaaaag gacgatctc 
      ccgtgtgaa ttttgcgag cagttggtt actcatttg 
      cgagacttg ctcattgct aatacgacc gaacatgag 
      tttaagaga gtccttgaa gggttgtgc aagcaaacg 
      aaatcattc aaagcacaa tgccttagt ctagtcgat 
      gagtattac ggcgctatt tatacattc ttggtttcg 
      gaattgaac gctaacgaa gtgtgtgtt tttgccggc 
      atttgtcca agaaacaat acgcaaggg gtgcctcca 
      attatgcct cttttacca gtcgagact ttggaaatc 
      accccagcg ccggtaatc cgagtcaat atagccaaa 
      gatggctcg tcggtcaaa gttatggca cgacctgag 
      gaaatacaa ctaccaatt gagcggatg atgccacct 
      cacgcccag gaaatgtac aattcccaa acttgcgtc 
      ttctgcgag tatttcttg cattactta caacaagct 
      atcaccact cctgcaaca gaggaggaa ataaaggaa 
      gtaattgat aaagcctgc gctaaatta ccccgcagc 
      atcaacacc acatgtgtt gagttcgtt gatacttac 
      gagccagct ttggtggca attttggcg caagagatc 
      gacccctcg caagtttgt cccctgatt aaagcttgc 
      ccgtccaac acgagagac gtggaagtg ttcatgcaa 
      caaggctct gacggttcc aagtgtccc ttgtgtctg 
      tttgccgtt tcaaagctt gagcaaatg gtgaaagac 
      aaaaaaact gagcaaaac atcaaggca gcactcaac 
      aagttgtgc gatcatttg ccgaatgat atcgccgct 
      gaatgtaac gattttgtc aacacttac actgatgag 
      ctcgtccag ttgcttatt gctgattta accccgcaa 
      gaagtttgc gtctatctt aaactttgt tcggataat 
      aaaccaccg actggtttt atcggcggt gatacttcc 
      acgaatatg atagctgat gacacaatt aatggaaaa 
      aatgttaaa cttgcacca gtcaccgat aatccaaga 
      tgcgtcctt tgcgagttc ataatgaaa gaagtgcaa 
      gacgagctt aaagacaat tctactgaa gaagccatc 
      aaaaaaaca gtgcacaat atttgtaac atcatgccc 
      aagtcaatt agcaaagaa tgcaacgat tttgtaaat 
      gaatacgcc gataccatt atccaatta ctgattgaa 
      gcaacggtc cctagcgaa atctgccgc atgatgcac 
      atgtgcgat aacactcaa attgaacaa gcaaaggtt 
      gaaattttt gaatgtgcc atttgcgaa agtctggtt 
      tatgccatg gagaagatt ttggacaac ccgaaagtt 
      gatcacagc attgaccac gtcctggag aaagcgtgc 
      cgggcttta ccccacaaa gagcaaaca aagtgcacg 
      gaaatcatc gaaaaatat ggcaaaacc atctataat 
      ctcgtgaca catttggcc gacaaggga ctagtctgt 
      aaagaaatc gctctctgt gctgctaga cccgcccga 
      ccgagtcgt ccaacctta gtgggggca aatagatgc 
      acatggggg cccagcttt tggtgtgct agtgacgaa 
      aatgccgag aaatgtggc aaagcggct aaggtacat 
      tgccaacaa aagatctgg ttggcaccg tcggccccc 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC000449 RA
      atgcatgat gcgggatat cctagacag gcgaatgca 
      tccgaggcc gtccgattg acaataaaa gccaaagaa 
      aacgcaaaa taagtcagc tgtattgac gcttgagtg 
      acgtgaaag aatattcaa gaaagatta ctaacaaac 
      aacacaaaa ttattgtga tttatcttc tctaaaatg 
      aagatatta atcctcgta tcgcttgtg gcatttttt 
      gccttcaca agcggagtt ttcgtccct ccccgacca 
      ggacataag cgtttggta gattcaaaa gaatgcact 
      tggggacct tcatactgg tgccagaat ttaacggcg 
      gcttccgac tgccgcgct gtgagacac tgcatccaa 
      acggtttgg gtgcacaag cagttgccc ccagatggt 
      agtagcatt tgtcagact tgtctcgat atggttaaa 
      caagcacga gaccaactt gaaagtaac gagacccaa 
      gagttgatc aaagaagtg tttgaaggg tcatgccat 
      ctcttgcac tttaaagaa atcgttaaa gagtgcgac 
      aaaatcgct gatcagtac atccccgaa ttgattgat 
      actttagct tcggaaatg aacccacaa gtcgtgtgt 
      tccgtggct ggtttatgt aacagtgaa aaggtccag 
      aaattgata gctgaggaa aaaggtttg aagccacaa 
      aatgtgggc acttgtgaa ggttgccag actgttgtt 
      gggataatg gaggagaag tttaataaa atgtcacgc 
      gacgatgtg ttgcaaagc ttcttacag atttgtggg 
      cgaactggc agtttgtca gatgggtgc agcaacatt 
      gttatcaca tacttcaac gaaatttac aaccatttg 
      aaagacaat ttcaatccg actgatttt tgtttgatg 
      actggagag tgtagctca aagtttcac actcatgct 
      aatgtcgaa atcacgcca atgtcgcac attgggtac 
      gtgcaagtt ggagggaaa caaaaggac gatctcccg 
      tgtgaattt tgcgagcag ttggttact catttgcga 
      gacttgctc attgctaat acgaccgaa catgagttt 
      aagagagtc cttgaaggg ttgtgcaag caaacgaaa 
      tcattcaaa gcacaatgc cttagtcta gtcgatgag 
      tattacggc gctatttat acattcttg gtttcggaa 
      ttgaacgct aacgaagtg tgtgttttt gccggcatt 
      tgtccaaga aacaatacg caaggggtg cctccaatt 
      atgcctctt ttaccagtc gagactttg gaaatcacc 
      ccagcgccg gtaatccga gtcaatata gccaaagat 
      ggctcgtcg gtcaaagtt atggcacga cctgaggaa 
      atacaacta ccaattgag cggatgatg ccacctcac 
      gcccaggaa atgtacaat tcccaaact tgcgtcttc 
      tgcgagtat ttcttgcat tacttacaa caagctatc 
      accactcct gcaacagag gaggaaata aaggaagta 
      attgataaa gcctgcgct aaattaccc cgcagcatc 
      aacaccaca tgtgttgag ttcgttgat acttacgag 
      ccagctttg gtggcaatt ttggcgcaa gagatcgac 
      ccctcgcaa gtttgtccc ctgattaaa gcttgcccg 
      tccaacacg agagacgtg gaagtgttc atgcaacaa 
      ggctctgac ggttccaag tgtcccttg tgtctgttt 
      gccgtttca aagcttgag caaatggtg aaagacaaa 
      aaaactgag caaaacatc aaggcagca ctcaacaag 
      ttgtgcgat catttgccg aatgatatc gccgctgaa 
      tgtaacgat tttgtcaac acttacact gatgagctc 
      gtccagttg cttattgct gatttaacc ccgcaagaa 
      gtttgcgtc tatcttaaa ctttgttcg gataataaa 
      ccaccgact ggttttatc ggcggtgat acttccacg 
      aatatgata gctgatgac acaattaat ggaaaaaat 
      gttaaactt gcaccagtc accgataat ccaagatgc 
      gtcctttgc gagttcata atgaaagaa gtgcaagac 
      gagcttaaa gacaattct actgaagaa gccatcaaa 
      aaaacagtg cacaatatt tgtaacatc atgcccaag 
      tcaattagc aaagaatgc aacgatttt gtaaatgaa 
      tacgccgat accattatc caattactg attgaagca 
      acggtccct agcgaaatc tgccgcatg atgcacatg 
      tgcgataac actcaaatt gaacaagca aaggttgaa 
      atttttgaa tgtgccatt tgcgaaagt ctggtttat 
      gccatggag aagattttg gacaacccg aaagttgat 
      cacagcatt gaccacgtc ctggagaaa gcgtgccgg 
      gctttaccc cacaaagag caaacaaag tgcacggaa 
      atcatcgaa aaatatggc aaaaccatc tataatctc 
      gtgacacat ttggccgac aagggacta gtctgtaaa 
      gaaatcgct ctctgtgct gctagaccc gcccgaccg 
      agtcgtcca accttagtg ggggcaaat agatgcaca 
      tgggggccc agcttttgg tgtgctagt gacgaaaat 
      gccgagaaa tgtggcaaa gcggctaag gtacattgc 
      caacaaaag atctggttg gcaccgtcg gcccccaag 
      gtgtgactt actacaatg aacaactta gttatttta 
      gttaagaat ataatgtaa ctatccacc aaagtttgt 
      taataaatt caattcgat aat

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY