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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 11896111..11898889
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_00086

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 0.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 0.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    pupation - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 10 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    remarks: later than schedule, hours 24 remarks: animals lost,
    Pupal morphology
    remarks: later than schedule, hours 24 remarks: animals lost,
    Adult morphology
    remarks: animals lost,
    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032188 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032188 RA
      atgttgtct gccaacagt agtgtgtct tggactaaa 
      aaacattct ctcctctca aagtggaac atcctcttt 
      gacaaatcg ccggaatgg atctccttc aagcctcaa 
      atgggtttg aaggtctac ccgtgctac tcgtgcaag 
      aacatgttt tcgtccaaa ctaacgttc caagaccac 
      attaaccgg cgtgtggtg attatcaaa tacaaatgt 
      atagaatgc acaaatacg ttcacattt tacaaccgc 
      tgttctctc attctccac gcgcgtaaa cacttcagt 
      ctcagcgaa ggaaaaata aatttagcc aatgttgat 
      atttttctc ctgccggtg gacctggca gggtttgcg 
      cgacacgaa agcatcccg tttttgtac gacgaggag 
      gaagagtac ccaagtgac aattcttac atcaactgc 
      cagttttac acacctgat gatgcggat aagggcaaa 
      caaatggtc acatttcgg ccgtttaat ctcgttttt 
      cactacgcc gaagggtcg aataacgtg ctcttagtc 
      atcaaacaa ctcagtctt aatattcca ctgtgcgag 
      ttcgtgcct caaaaccac gacaaacca gcgaaacca 
      gcgactaat gggcatctc gaacctgag ataaagcaa 
      gaagtggag gaggacttc accctaccg gtgatttcc 
      aaaattgag tcgctcccg cagtgtagt gagtgtaac 
      acgacgatt gagggccct cttgtgagc cacttccaa 
      ggggcgaat aagcctctg gatgagtcg ttgtgttgc 
      tacatttgc aaatacgtg gcccccacg aagtgttcg 
      ctcaaagcg cacgtaagg actcatgag aatatagct 
      cctcatgta tgtcccgag tgtggtaaa ctattcaac 
      agttggaca cttctcgat aaacacatg gaggaggtt 
      tgcttccat ttgagcaag caagtacgg ttcagatgc 
      ccggccttg aagtgtggc aaacttttc gttatgccc 
      aacacttat gcctcgcat tttgccaac cacttccaa 
      tcgattctc aggtgtagc gactgcagc tcgaatttt 
      ttcaccgag tcggacttt accgaccac gcgaaaaac 
      cacgagagt tgcacttcg ttcaaaact ttcaattgc 
      acggtttgt aagaattcg ccgactcta ggcgaagag 
      aaaacaacc gaacatgtc aactggcat ttgagggac 
      cgggagact tgtgtttac attttcacc tgtcgctcg 
      tgtcgcagt tatttccgc tcgaccacc acttactcc 
      gtacataaa caaaggtgt ttgaaaaat gagaaaacg 
      cccaatatt gtcacagcc agttgccag ttttgcagc 
      caaaaaata caatacaag gagaaagac tcgctcaag 
      gtgtgcacc agttgcaaa caaatcaac caccttcgg 
      ggaaccccc gggaaaagc agcgacgag aagaagtcc 
      acttgtatg ttgtgtaag gaagacttg cttcccgaa 
      aatctcaat tcgcacatg aaactgtgc aaatataac 
      aacccgatt gtcacgata cacgcaatc aataacgaa 
      tcgaaagac tccgatgag actagttcg agcgaaccg 
      tcgaatctt gactcgagt aacgactct ctcaaaact 
      gaggaaacc cccaggagt aaaaaaagg aaacgttcg 
      tcaaactcc tcgacccct aagagcaaa aaaccggcc 
      gaagagaac gacctccaa gccgaaaaa ccgatctcg 
      tttgacgga acgtactat tgcaaacta tgcgattat 
      aaaaacacc gaaaggtcc gaatttcac aatcatgtg 
      aaaacgcac cgtgacatc tcgacggcg tatcagtgt 
      atggagtgt ggggaatgt ttcgttgtc cgaccttcg 
      ttagtcaaa catttggca catttccac caagtgacg 
      gattccgag cagtatttt gccgagaac agttgttac 
      gataagtgc gcgattgaa gaacttgag aataatttg 
      aaactggtt ccgggggaa cataaaggc ccggttaag 
      gagaatcag tgttcggtt tgcttggaa gagtttgag 
      gacgggctg gctttaagc aaacatttt cgcattcat 
      gggatggcg ttccttatg aagaaaact aaatag
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032188 RA
      agaccggca actgtcatc gctgatgct catctctac 
      cacaaaaaa gaaactcaa aagatcagt ttttaaccg 
      aattgcgag tttgttacc cgtcaggaa actccacca 
      tgttgtctg ccaacagta gtgtgtctt ggactaaaa 
      aacattctc tcctctcaa agtggaaca tcctctttg 
      acaaatcgc cggaatgga tctccttca agcctcaaa 
      tgggtttga aggtctacc cgtgctact cgtgcaaga 
      acatgtttt cgtccaaac taacgttcc aagaccaca 
      ttaaccggc gtgtggtga ttatcaaat acaaatgta 
      tagaatgca caaatacgt tcacatttt acaaccgct 
      gttctctca ttctccacg cgcgtaaac acttcagtc 
      tcagcgaag gaaaaataa atttagcca atgttgata 
      tttttctcc tgccggtgg acctggcag ggtttgcgc 
      gacacgaaa gcatcccgt ttttgtacg acgaggagg 
      aagagtacc caagtgaca attcttaca tcaactgcc 
      agttttaca cacctgatg atgcggata agggcaaac 
      aaatggtca catttcggc cgtttaatc tcgtttttc 
      actacgccg aagggtcga ataacgtgc tcttagtca 
      tcaaacaac tcagtctta atattccac tgtgcgagt 
      tcgtgcctc aaaaccacg acaaaccag cgaaaccag 
      cgactaatg ggcatctcg aacctgaga taaagcaag 
      aagtggagg aggacttca ccctaccgg tgatttcca 
      aaattgagt cgctcccgc agtgtagtg agtgtaaca 
      cgacgattg agggccctc ttgtgagcc acttccaag 
      gggcgaata agcctctgg atgagtcgt tgtgttgct 
      acatttgca aatacgtgg cccccacga agtgttcgc 
      tcaaagcgc acgtaagga ctcatgaga atatagctc 
      ctcatgtat gtcccgagt gtggtaaac tattcaaca 
      gttggacac ttctcgata aacacatgg aggaggttt 
      gcttccatt tgagcaagc aagtacggt tcagatgcc 
      cggccttga agtgtggca aacttttcg ttatgccca 
      acacttatg cctcgcatt ttgccaacc acttccaat 
      cgattctca ggtgtagcg actgcagct cgaattttt 
      tcaccgagt cggacttta ccgaccacg cgaaaaacc 
      acgagagtt gcacttcgt tcaaaactt tcaattgca 
      cggtttgta agaattcgc cgactctag gcgaagaga 
      aaacaaccg aacatgtca actggcatt tgagggacc 
      gggagactt gtgtttaca ttttcacct gtcgctcgt 
      gtcgcagtt atttccgct cgaccacca cttactccg 
      tacataaac aaaggtgtt tgaaaaatg agaaaacgc 
      ccaatattg tcacagcca gttgccagt tttgcagcc 
      aaaaaatac aatacaagg agaaagact cgctcaagg 
      tgtgcacca gttgcaaac aaatcaacc accttcggg 
      gaacccccg ggaaaagca gcgacgaga agaagtcca 
      cttgtatgt tgtgtaagg aagacttgc ttcccgaaa 
      atctcaatt cgcacatga aactgtgca aatataaca 
      acccgattg tcacgatac acgcaatca ataacgaat 
      cgaaagact ccgatgaga ctagttcga gcgaaccgt 
      cgaatcttg actcgagta acgactctc tcaaaactg 
      aggaaaccc ccaggagta aaaaaagga aacgttcgt 
      caaactcct cgaccccta agagcaaaa aaccggccg 
      aagagaacg acctccaag ccgaaaaac cgatctcgt 
      ttgacggaa cgtactatt gcaaactat gcgattata 
      aaaacaccg aaaggtccg aatttcaca atcatgtga 
      aaacgcacc gtgacatct cgacggcgt atcagtgta 
      tggagtgtg gggaatgtt tcgttgtcc gaccttcgt 
      tagtcaaac atttggcac atttccacc aagtgacgg 
      attccgagc agtattttg ccgagaaca gttgttacg 
      ataagtgcg cgattgaag aacttgaga ataatttga 
      aactggttc cgggggaac ataaaggcc cggttaagg 
      agaatcagt gttcggttt gcttggaag agtttgagg 
      acgggctgg ctttaagca aacattttc gcattcatg 
      ggatggcgt tccttatga agaaaacta aatagtcgc 
      atatgtgct tgttatttc actaataaa ttcgttttg 

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY